|Abstract (english)|| |
Dissertation pays special attention to North American Catholic theologian David Tracy (born in 1938). He has devoted his entire theological investigations to phenomenon called "pluralism". Main thesis of this work is next: in his book The Analogical Imagination: Christian Theology and the Culture of Pluralism (1981) Tracy performed hermeneutical turn in regard to his earlier work Blessed Rage for Order: New Pluralism in Theology (1975). The goal of this doctorate is to show Tracy's hermeneutical turn by critically analyzis of both his most important books. The two main hypothesis are as follows: central method of revisionist model in The Bessed Rage for Order is phenomenological-metaphyisical-correlational method, and central claim of Analogical Imagination is theological strategy of analogical imagination that is capable of becoming a part of broader dialogue in public. Author of dissertation splits his work into three sections and nine chapters. In the first section named Overview of David Tracy's theological thought, after short introduction to theology of David Tracy in reference to theology of the twentieth century (first chapter), author gives an overview of Tracy's theological thoughts (second chapter). His work is divided into four periods: early thinking, hermeneutical turn, interreligious-dialogical thinking and postmodern search. It has been shown that Tracy never stayed at the same point of view that he permanently change and evaluate his thinking depending on new theological situations and problems. Thus, after his doctorate about theological investigations of Bernard Lonergan, Tracy has found that Lonergan's thinking is inadequate to present situation. Lonergan's achievements on the method in theology are not in the focus of theological investigations any more. New problem that arises in our horizon is pluralism. Tracy leaves achievements of his teacher Lonergan and turns into problems that poses phenomenon called "pluralism". First, in Blessed Rage for Order, in the context of fundamental theology, he discussed pluralism in theology. Uncontented with resolutions of ortodox, liberal, neoortodox and radical theology he proposes revisionist model that will adequately relate two theological sources: common human experience and language, and Christian texts. After searching for adequate theological model he did hermeneutical turn in The Analogical Imagination. Within systematic theology and by expanding question of pluralism in theology to wider society and culture, he amounts theological strategy of analogical imagination. Afterwards he applies analogical imagination to interreligous dialogue with Buddhism and to the dialogue with psychoanalysis and philosophy, especially in his book Dialogue with Other: the Inter-religious Dialogue (1990) In the last period he wrote about postmodernism and theology in On Naming the Present (1994). Author summarizes that Tracy never stops on the merely one theological problem. His mind is never static. As culture and society change and pose the new questions he is focused on new theological strategies. Author conludes this section by statement that the key thought of his work is pluralism. Tracy never stops thinking about theology in always new pluralistic contexts. Second section is called Hermeneutics as precondition of understanding David Tracy's theological turn. Author is convinced that it is impossible to comprehend Tracy's hermeneutical turn without short introduction to the key authors of hermeneutic tradition (third chapter). Therefore author brings explanations of basic terms connected with hermeneutics and by historical-critical method and method of representation which presents main period in history of hermeneutics and key authors. He highlights that the biggest change in history of hermeneutics has happened when Friedrich Schleiermacher distinguished philosophical from biblical hermeneutics. Schleiermacher is the founder of philosophical hermeneutics which is then elaborated by Wilhelm Dilthey, Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur. Last two philosophers are in the focus of author's interest because Tracy's hermeneutical turn is primary influenced by Gadamer and Ricoeur. Author sums up that the key features in history of hermeneutics are as follows: first is school of Alexandria which is oriented on interpretation of Bible based on analogy, second feature is school of Antiohia which prefers literally intepretation and third is synthesis of this two traditions with his major representative in St. Augustine. Author has concluded that Tracy's hermeneutic strategy is mainly like the third option, respectively Tracy uses synthesis of Alexandrian and Antiohian school which means that he includes allegorical and literally interpretation. Also, in this section, author represents main characteristics of philosophical hermenutics of Gadamer and Ricoeur. He concludes that te major difference between them is based on their understanding of the method. While Gadamer directly criticizes method and focuses on comprehending the truth in tradition in a way of a game, Ricouer undertakes longer way of understanding the truth by affirming methods that can help in interpreting texts. In the last chapter of this section (chapter four), author brings short history of theological hermeneutics escpecially introducing understanding of theological hermeneutics in the work of Gerhard Ebeling, Ersnt Fuchs, Wolfhart Pannenberg, Emerich Coreth, Claude Geffré and Werner Jeanrond. Author states that theological hermeneutics are separated between hermeneutics that comes out from Christian revelation and faith and hermeneutics that begins from concrete situation of the reader. Author finds this dialectic as dialectic between "hermeneutics from above" and "hermeneutics from below". The third and main section is called Basic guidelines of David Tracy's hermeneutic turn. Author splits this section into five chapters: Revisionist model (chapter five), Analogical imagination – hermeneutic strategy for dialogue (chapter six), Hermeneutic approach in Blessed Rage for Order (chapter seven), Hermeneutic approach in The Analogical Imagination (chapter eight) and Main characteristic of David Tracy's hermeneutic turn (chapter nine). In chapter five author explains Tracy's revisionist model which is grounded on five thesis as follows: 1st, two theological sources are common human experience and language and Christian texts, 2nd, theological task is critical correlation between research results of two theological sources, 3rd, phenomenology of religion dimension is method of investigation of the first theological source – common human experience and language, 4th, historical and hermenutical method of investigations are key methods for Christian texts and 5th, to define the truth status of results of researches metaphysical or transcendental reflection is needed. Revisionist model involves revisiting of Christian texts and common human experience, but at the same time remains firmly connected with tradition. It assumes that common human experience is a specific theological source. Author underlines that Tracy uses Paul Tillich's method of correlation in a new way. Tillich correlates human situation and message which is based upon Scripture in the way that situation pose questions and message gives answers. Tracy allows multidirectional communication between situation and message and calls it "mutually critical correlation". Author clearly emphasizes the three facts about Tracy's revisionist model: firstly, revisionist model is Tracy's attempt to determine major features of Christian theology which has become pluralistic; secondly, and this is at the same time major weakness of the revisionist model, the whole model has introductory character which means that it is only propositional and it brings principles that are waiting for their application; and thirdly, the question of hermeneutics is only a question of method that can improve our understanding of Christian texts. This is elaborated in chapter seven. Dialogue and theological strategy of analogical imagination is of the main interest in chapter six. Author begins with Tracy's dictum that a theologian can be theologian only if he speaks to three publics: society, academy and church. Tracy's dictum assumes, as author suggests, that theology is usually oriented on church as theological public. According to this framework theology becomes marginalized and privatized like art. On the basis of this dictum author continues to present Tracy's model of dialogue as follows: every participant of dialogue has to find most important core of his own tradition or religion that reveals truth for him, which is named a classic followed by Gadamer. The classic is the richest part of some tradition and culture and doesn't need some legitimation from outwardly because he reveals himself as a classic by his own power of truth. Author underlines four features of classic in Tracy's interpretation: a classic is the fact of every culture, in the core of the classic is happening of the truth that is disclosed in the classic himself, he covers the subject that interprets him and he is public. Then, as author continues, Tracy tries to found definition of a religious classic. As Tracy suggests, a religious classic is the one which reveals the truth in some part of religion. Two strategies that help to understand religious classic are manifestation and proclamation where maifestation is oriented to ritual, myth and symbol and proclamation to the word. Tracy finds very helpful Mircea Eliade's work where manifestation is emphasized. As author argues, Tracy considers that tradition of manifestation is important for the real ratio between manifestation and proclamation. Furthermore, Tracy investigates what it could be a Christian classic. He insists that Christian classic is the person and event of Jesus Christ which is confirmed in the Bible because every aspect of Christianity could be understood only if it is connected with Jesus Christ. After the process of naming the classic, a participant of dialogue enters the process of dialogue risking his own tradition and beliefs. This whole process is a process of analogical imagination which results with authentic conversations between participants of the dialogue. Author highlights that theological strategy of analogical imagination like a strategy of revisionist theology in Blessed Rage for Order includes aspect of critical interpretation of tradition and common human experience, but it does not mean that Tracy stands in tradition of liberal theology. Instead, revisionist model confirms that he is critical to liberal tradition. Critical examination of Christian tradition opens up a participant of dialogue not to abandoning his own beliefs and tradition, but to a true and deliberate mode of dialogue. Also, author slightly announces hermeneutical turn which is the subject of chapter eight. In chapter seven author questions Tracy's hermeneutical approach in Blessed Rage for Order. It has been shown that there is no kind of hermeneutical model that is developed and shown systematicly, rather there is hermeneutical approach and model that serves to point limit character of Christian texts which indicate to transcendental dimension. Riceouer's and Gadamer's achievements are the most important for Tracy. Author considers that Tracy favors several contribution that hermenutics brings to us: it helps us to intepret Christian text because it abandons psychological interpretation, it focuses us on a sense of the text and aids theology to distinct from ethics and metaphysics. Subsequently Tracy emphasizes two main topics of hermeneutics: on one side, historical context of producing the texts and on the other side, temporal distanciation. Also, Tracy holds important three achievements of hermeneutic based on Gadamer and Ricoeur: firstly understanding of event and significance inside of discourse, secondly understanding of hermeneutics as relation between explanation and understanding the Ricoeur's tradition and thirdly fusion of horizons as a last step of interpetation. Furthermore Ricoeur's investigations of literary genres in the New Testament is very important for Tracy because it enables noticing the limit character of scriptural texts. But, author argues, instead of this hermeneutical features of revisionist model, that Tracy stays on a definition of hermeneutics as part of the revisionist model. Hermeneutical approach in The Analogical Imagination is of the main interest in chapter eight. Author argues that Tracy constitutes hermeneutics in The Analogical Imagination as universal method of interpretation. Hermeneutics is now a part of universal hermeneutics that covers philosophy and theology, respectively every act of thinking. Author holds that hermeneutics in Tracy's view has anthropological character which means that every human being has some kind of hermeneutical activity. Universal character of hermeneutics can be understood better by achievements of Gadamer. In the example of dialogue which is dialectic between questions and answers, Gadamer explains hermeneutics and emphasizes activity of questioning, setting into openness, horizon of question and fusion of horizons. Tracy, on the basis of Gadamer's explanations, as author argues, criticizes Gadamer's claim that interpreter and his texts are the static categories and finds them as dynamic categories. This means that the text can change intepreter's horizon and that displacement of his horizon is possible. The interpeter and his text have identity only in the act of reading. Author clarifies that Tracy has called this process "new fusion of horizons". Also, author underlines Tracy's proposal that in the hermeneutical process an interpreter self-expose himself, his tradition and beliefs. There is no fear that this self-exposure can be dangerous for Christians because they expose their tradition and risk their own interpretation in that kind of conversation. Instead, a Christian classic, as every classic, by its very nature wants to expose himself to the others. Further, author underlines Tracy's view of hermeneutical process as follows: an interpeter enters in dialogue with his own understanding which must be taken critically and warns broader community on the classic, then he establishes some relation to the text and finally uses all possible methods of explanation that can help understanding of the text. In the last chapter author emphasizes the main characteristics of David Tracy's hermeneutical turn. First, author argues that in Analogical Imagination Tracy has abandoned hermeneutics as auxiliary method which clarifies limit character of christian texts and accepts hermeneutics as universal method of understanding. There is now hermeneutics that will emphasize the core of different tradition which is called „classic“. Secondly, author considers very important the fact that Tracy holds that systematic theology is necessary hermeneutical theology which allows public character of theology. Thirdly, Tracy's model of dialogue, which is based upon Gadamer model of dialogue, is crucial for realization of bringing out classic into public realm. Fourth, Tracy criticizes Ricoeur hermeneutics. Tracy underlines that Ricoeur's model of developing understanding covers complexity of hermeneutical approaches. In that way this model doesn't allow existence of confrontations. Tracy brings out more complex model of understanding that is based upon Wayne Booth's theory of vitality. Booth holds that all interpretations vitalize hermeneutic process which means that diametrically opposite interpretations shouldn't be "killed", but vitalized in interpretation. Fifth, author concludes that Tracy favors Ricoeur's method of distanciation which can help interpreter move away from himself and lets him be opened to the text. In a broader sense dissertation contributes to better understanding and improving interreligous and intercultural dialogue which is needed in modern pluralistic societies. In the narrow sense it contributes to better understanding of David Tracy's theology in the context of Tracy's hermeneutical turn. There hasn't been any work yet that considers Tracy's shift from hermeneutics as a method in The Blessed Rage from Order to the hermeneutics as a general approach to interpretation which is an original achievement for understanding Tracy's work.