U radu su opisani koncepti javnog predstavljanja kulturnog nasljeđa i identiteta, na temelju istraživanja fenomena derneka (proslave) u Imotskoj krajini i zapadnoj Hercegovini, kroz primjere i opis derneka kao jednog od prvih organiziranih događanja koji u svojoj strukturi sadrži različite elemente izvedbe (predstavljanja) ali i elemente festivala. Istraživanje za ovaj rad zasnovano je na metodi utemeljene teorije, a korištene su tradicionalne kvalitativne etnografske metode: terensko istraživanje, promatranje, sudioničko promatranje i polustrukturirani intervjui. Također, predstavljena je i sustavna etnološka i kulturnoantropološka analiza derneka kao jedne od prvih organiziranih manifestacija, na istraživanom području, na kojima sami sudionici predstavljaju vlastito kulturno nasljeđe i identitet, komunicirajući pripadnost određenoj zajednici s kojom se identificiraju, kroz različite izvedbe, na razini naracija i pobožnih, ali i izvan pobožnih praksi. Istraživanjem je obuhvaćen povijesni prikaz derneka od spontanog okupljanja sudionika nakon misnog slavlja u prigodi proslave sveca zaštitnika ili proslave obilježavanja važnog datuma za zajednicu, do organizirane proslave (derneka) sa svim elementima suvremeno organiziranog događanja. Također, istražena je i uloga sudionika na dernecima, te njihov osobni doprinos u prenošenju i mijenjanju „narodne kulture“. Derneci u Imotskoj krajini i zapadnoj Hercegovini predstavljeni su i kroz pet studija slučaja i to: Dernek Gospe od Karmela u Runovićima, Ilindanski dernek (Ilina) u Studencima, Proslava Gospe od Anđela u Imotskome, Stipanjdanski dernek u župi Gorica-Sovići i dernek za Veliku Gospu na Vrljici u Prološcu. U radu se analizira i dernek kao prostor iskazivanja i propitivanja identiteta, ali i kao agens koji može transformirati i samu sredinu u kojoj se održava. Fenomen derneka sagledan je iz različitih perspektiva, a prikupljena i ovdje predstavljena građa o derneku, otvara i neke nove teorijske i istraživačke perspektive, te nudi određena analitička pomagala za potpunije razumijevanje ovog, do sada, neistraženog fenomena. Analiza građe potvrdila je da se iz zabilježenih naracija i praksi može zaključiti kako na derneku postoje razni predstavljački modeli koji se prenose generacijama, a potvrđuju i modificiraju ponavljanjem izvedaba. Rezultati provedenih istraživanja pokazali su da dernek predstavlja platformu na kojoj pojedinci i zajednica predstavljaju svoje kulturno nasljeđe i identitet. Pokazalo se i da ponavljanje izvedbe, protekom vremena, dovodi do nastajanja nove tradicije, ali i promjene uloge sudionika (publike) i njenih obrazaca komuniciranja.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The paper provides concepts of public presentation of cultural heritage and identity, based on the research of the phenomenon called dernek (celebration) in Imotska krajina and West Herzegovina, by providing the examples and description of dernek as one of the first organized events that structurally contains various elements of a presentation (performance), but also the elements of a festival. This paper also provides a systematic ethnological, cultural and anthropological analysis of dernek as one of the first organized manifestations where the very participants present their own heritage and identity communicating thus their belonging to a certain community with which they identify themselves, through various performances. According to Erving Goffman, every individual (performer) presents himself/herself in a certain situation to others, he/she plays a certain role, chooses his/her personal veil – mask, in order to achieve certain impression at the 'audience'. The social situation is the scene, and altogether makes the performance (compare Goffman 1974). The research encompasses a historical view of dernek, from the spontaneous gathering of the participants, after the mass at the occasion of the celebration of a saint-protector or at the occasion of the celebration of the certain date that is important for the community, to the organized celebration (dernek) with all elements of the contemporary organized event. The paper also provides research on the role of the participant in derneks, their personal contribution in transmitting and changing of the “national culture “. Derneks are part of the customs in all places of Imotska krajina and, more broadly, in Dalmatinska zagora and Herzegovina. They are well known throughout Croatia, under different names and mostly related to the religious holidays (Trogrlić Curić 2003:580) and celebrations of certain saints. dernek, as a celebration of saints, is called numerous and various names peculiar for the folk religiousness, but also for other practices exceeding that framework. The analysis of the material indicates the diversity of the religious, but also the ceremonial expressions recorded in the narratives and practice. Equally so, the collected and presented material enables an insight into the performances and customary practices taking place during dernek. Different performances have been strongly directed towards sensorial reality being especially important for the interpretation of various cultural practices appearing in all kinds of derneks that were subject to the research. The paper also analyses dernek as an area that is available for expressing and questioning of one’s identity, but also as an agent capable to transform the very environment in which it takes place. An anthropological view of dernek shows that it is a ludic and entertaining activity with a symbolic meaning. Therefore, the communication of the behaviour practices during dernek has been observed on the broader level, starting from the presumption that the meaning of dernek cannot be sought in the religious activities only, but also in the part of the entertaining experience and adventure. It proved that games and the entertainment as a form of communication has a significant place not only in the life of an individual, but also in the social life, tradition and customs as their integral part. Dernek as a play and entertainment is both an anthropological and social phenomenon. In that sense, the terms game and entertainment are used in the broadest sense. Dernek is a restricted sequence both in the sense of time and space, bayond everyday life and seriousness; it simultaneously, intensively and completely, absorbs the personality of an individual – called dernečar. In such context, the participation in dernek enables a temporary escape from reality both in the sense of space and time, thus that it allows the participants to represent themselves or their communities outside of an everyday context. It is mostly a striving of a participant to express himself through game and various entertaining performances. Certain ludic activities during dernek enable auto-affirmatio as well as expressing and development of the participants’ creating potential. The paper is divided into seven parts. in the first part, besides explanation of terms used therein and the structure of the paper, there is also a Historical and geographical description of the place of research with an emphasis to the region and identity. According to Nicole Pratt (2005: 69– 86) the great importance for the description of identity is the culture, especially the historical and geographical facts that conditioned its development. Being guided by that, the paper begins with the historical and geographical presentation of the region of Imotska krajina and Western Herzegovina and continues with the part in which the space or place is emphasized as „the place of cultural significance (..) which makes the places peculiar for their identity, i.e., their history - making them inseparable part of identity of every individual and a community“ (Čapo and Gulin Zrnić 2011:27). The second chapter provides description of research methodology. For the purpose of this paper, the research was based on the method of grounded theory, whereas the traditional, qualitative ethnographic methods were applied as well: field research, observation, observation by participation and semi-structural interviews. Furthermore, the third chapter describes the theoretical presumptions providing a brief explanation of the terms: Presentation (public presentation), Cultural Heritage (legacy) and Identity, questioning also the definitions of those terms. The fourth part explains theoretical approaches and terms related to the Public Events (among which the subject of this research belongs as well), with a special emphasize to the cultural practice of the organisation of public events (festivals, celebrations etc.). Further parts provide descriptions of cultural practices and performances of the identity. Also, the communicational aspects of public events have also been pointed out along with the description and role of a „spokesperson “of the community, as an intermediator in communication. In the fifth Chapter, except for the term dernek, the paper deals with the dernek both in the public and media related discourse, especially with regard to understanding and existence of dernek in Imotska krajina and West Herzegovina. Also, the phenomenon of dernek is analysed according to all marked elements whose synergy results in dernek as it has been experienced and remembered by the inhabitants of Imotska krajina and West Herzegovina and in the way, it has still been existing in that region. The analysis commences with the description of the events and practice on the eve of dernek, which includes folk religiousness and practise as well as setting of fire, i.e. bonfires as a religion ensuing element. Thereafter, the paper provides a description of the space and places where the dernek takes place in, providing those used for the religious and those out of the framework of the religious practice. The following part of the paper is dedicated to the preparation of and the clothes the participants in dernek wear, i.e., their acting during the very dernek. There is a notion of various events and practises performed during the journeys undertaken with the purpose to participate in a distanced dernek, with a retrospective view over oaths and pilgrimages. The answers have been given as to what kind of food and drinks were consumed during dernek, since food tends to be much more than a mere nourishment, because people select, cook and serve certain meals in order to evoke memories, mark certain dates and show their identity (Gadže and Rajković Iveta 2015). Also, there is a description of trading that takes place on the occasion of dernek, i.e. the things sold and bought on the stalls, with the description of how tradesmen and their customers behave at such occasions. One of the most frequent elements of dernek, described in the part entitled – Songs, Plays and Entertainment during Dernek, is a story about the characteristic way of singing in this region – the so called ganga, including the ethno-dance, music and entertainment. It turned out that the ethno-music and dance were social activities in the original context, the form of communication within certain group which, as the time passed, were relocated to the stage becoming thereby independent performances with dominantly aesthetic function and not so rarely aimed to point out the national or local affiliation. Also, there is a description of various (social) games as a part of dernek, with even not too rare a fight between the participants. It turned out that the opinion, according to which the getting together of young men and women at dernek as the main reason for it taking place, was shared amount most of the interviewed persons. Also, the role of intermediator in acquainting the young pairs was often also to take care of their behaviour at dernek. Walking together during dernek, the participants turned the place of event into a stage for introducing their personality and by their defined walking route they create the new meaning in the space. Besides the interpretation of the material collected by research, personal observation and experience, there are also experiences of the storytellers, i.e., participants in derneks. The analysis includes the tales ensuing from their participation in the most recent derneks, but also the stories about somewhat “older” events and experiences originating from the time of certain storytellers’ youth. The Chapter six provides five studies of five occasions: the dernek on the occasion of Our Lady of Carmel in the place of Runovići, Dernek of St. Ellias’ Day (Ilina) in Studenci, Celebration of Our Lady of the Angels in Imotski, St. Stephen’s Day in the parish of Gorica-Sovići and the dernek on the occasion of the Assumption Day on Vrljica in Prološac. The studies describe five derneks – celebrations of certain saints which take place in five parishes, geographically located in the marginal areas of Imotsko-bekijsko polje. The celebrations of saints were most often a motive to organize a dernek in each of those places. According to the recorded stories told by the participants, the participation in derneks is not possible without the person’s participation in the religious ceremony (mass, procession, oath). It is considered that the religious and non-religious (entertaining) practices have been inseparable parts of dernek. The Chapter seven is a closing part of the paper providing the final thoughts and results of the research. It was proved that no matter weather observed as an independent event or a part of broader cultural manifestations, dernek has an irreplaceable role in the formation of the cultural and religious identity of Imotska krajina and West Herzegovina. Also, the gatherings on the occasion of dernek build up the common spirit and mentality and encourage the awareness of belonging to one’s community and having thus a significant social, but also an economic function. In this paper, the dernek phenomenon has been observed from different perspectives, whereas the material collected and presented in this paper, opens certain new theoretical and researchdriven perspectives offering the analytical tools that enable a more detailed understanding of this, so far unexplored phenomenon. The analysis of the material confirmed that it can be concluded from the recorded narrations and practices, that derneks provides various models of performance conveyed from a generation to a generation being thus confirmed and modified by repetition of the its performance. The outcome of undertaken research showed that dernek represents a platform where individuals and their community present their cultural heritage and identity. Also, the repetitive model of presentation, by the elapse of time, generates a new tradition and a change of the role that the participants (audience) play in it as well as its patterns of communication.