Cilj istraživanja je utvrditi razinu povezanosti socijalne okoline (roditelji, treneri, vršnjaci) mladih hrvača u odnosu na njihovu razinu zadovoljstva, intrinzičnu motivaciju i posvećenost hrvanju. Uzorak je činilo 172 mladih hrvača od 11 do 17 godina iz većine hrvačkih klubova u Hrvatskoj, koji su podijeljeni u tri dobne skupine, mlađi dječaci hrvači od 11 do 13 (N = 79) stariji dječaci hrvači od 14 i 15 (N=50) i kadeti od 16 i 17 godina (N=43). Korišteni su upitnici koji mjere posvećenost sportu, ukupnu razinu zadovoljstva u sportu, socijalnu orijentaciju i utjecaj roditelja, trenera i vršnjaka, intrinzičnu motivaciju te roditeljsku potporu djeci u sportu. Rezultati su obrađeni diskriminacijskom analizom te kanoničkom korelacijskom analizom. Postavljene su dvije hipoteze: H1: Postoji značajna razlika u socijalnoj motivaciji između različitih dobnih skupina mladih u hrvanju. Diskriminacijska analiza izdvojila je prvu diskriminacijsku funkciju koja je bila statistički značajna na nivou 0,01 (p < 0,01) te je ova hipoteza potvrđena. Najveći doprinos definiranju diskriminacijske funkcije dale su poddimenzije roditeljske potpore, intrinzične motivacije i socijalne orijentacije. Dječaci hrvači se najviše razlikuju u varijablama „percipirana kompetentnost“, „pozitivna potkrepljenja“ i „roditeljska vjerovanja u dobrobit bavljenja sportom“, a najviše se razlikuju mlađi i stariji dječaci hrvači, dok se najstariji hrvači kadeti umjereno razlikuju i od mlađih i od starijih dječaka hrvača. Na pozitivnom polu diskriminacijske funkcije nalazi se mlađa dobna skupina, blizu nule su kadeti, a na negativnom starija dobna skupina. Drugim riječima, mlađim hrvačima važna su roditeljska vjerovanja u dobrobit bavljenja sportom, a karakterizira ih više napora/važnosti i više zadovoljstva u sportu. Starije dječake hrvače karakterizira manje percipirane kompetentnosti, više pritiska/tenzije i manje zadovoljstva u sportu, dok su kadeti umjereni u svemu. H2: Postoji značajna povezanost između posvećenosti hrvanju, razine zadovoljstva, intrinzične motivacije i socijalne orijentacije. Kanoničkom korelacijskom analizom utvrđeno je kako postoji jedan statistički značajan kanonički par na nivou 0,01 te je ova hipoteza potvrđena. Kanonički koeficijent korelacije za kanonički par iznosi, F1 = 0,65, čime se objašnjava 42 % ukupne varijance na nivou značajnosti p < 0,01. Kanoničke faktore prvog i drugog seta varijabli u kanonički par povezuje socijalna orijentacija u obliku prihvaćanja grupe, roditeljska potpora u obliku roditeljskog vjerovanja u dobrobit bavljenja sportom i pozitivnih potkrepljenja te varijable intrinzične motivacije „interes/uživanje“ i „percipirana kompetentnost“. Dobiveni rezultati pokazuju kako postoji statistički značajna razlika u socijalnoj motivaciji različitih dobnih skupina mladih hrvača i ističu važnost motivacije za postizanje pozitivnih afektivnih ishoda koje mladi mogu postići u sportu. Ovo istraživanje predstavlja još jedan značajan doprinos razumijevanju odustajanja mladih od hrvanja, što još uvijek nije dovoljno istraženo niti je dobro znanstveno objašnjeno i riješeno te ima širi društveni značaj i izlazi iz okvira akademske zajednice.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
In order for young people to pursue wrestling as their chosen sport, it is essential for their social environment, namely, their parents, their coach and peers to motivate them. According to numerous previous studies, social orientation is important because it has been proven to be directly associated to satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. In order to remain in wrestling, youth need to feel satisfaction and to positively self – evaluate their own abilities and achievements. Through the positive influence of social environment, youth will perceive wrestling as a source of satisfaction and continue pursuing it. The purpose of this research is to determine the level of connection of the social environment (parents, coaches, peers) of young wrestlers in relation to their level of satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and commitment to wrestling. The survey was conducted among 172 young wrestlers, ages between 11 and 17, who train in different clubs in Croatia. They have been divided in three different age groups, younger wrestlers, boys age 11 to 13 (N = 79) older wrestlers, boys age 14 and 15 (N = 50) and cadets, boys age 16 and 17 (N = 43). For the purpose of this survey the following editions of Croatian questionnaires were used: “Sport Commitment Questionnaire” (Scanlan et al., 1993), modified and translated into Croatian (Crnjac, 2017); “Questionnaire on scale of total satisfaction in sport”, (Scanlan et al., 1993), translated into Croatian and modified (Crnjac, 2017); “Questionnaire on social orientation and influence of parents, coaches and peers” (Stuntz and Weiss, 2003), modified Croatian version (Crnjac, 2017); “Intrinzic Motivation
Inventory – IMI” (Štimac, 2000) and “Questionnaire on parental support for children in sport”
(Bosnar, 2003). Data was processed using the discriminate analysis and the canonical correlation analysis. According to appointed purpose of the research, two hypotheses were set. The first set hypothesis H1 was: There is a significant difference in social motivation between different age groups of youth in wrestling. The discriminant analysis singled out the first discriminant function (eigen–value = 0,42; canonical R = 0,54; Wilks' Lambda = 0,67; Chi–sqr. = 65,47; df = 26,00; p < 0,01), which was statistically significant at the level of 0,01, and that has confirmed our hypothesis. The discriminatory function of social motivation between different age groups of young wrestlers have defined by sub-dimensions of parental support, intrinsic motivation and social orientation. Coaching praise and peer acceptance are also very important to young wrestlers. The biggest contribution to defining the discriminatory function was given by the subdimensions of parental support, intrinsic motivation and social orientation. Boys wrestlers differ the most in the variables "perceived competence", "positive corroboration" and "parental beliefs in the benefits of sports". The younger and older boys wrestlers differ the most, while the oldest cadet wrestlers differ
moderately from both the younger and older boys wrestlers. On the positive side of the
discriminatory function is the younger age group. On the opposite negative side, there is a
older age group, and in the middle of the discriminatory function very close to zero, there is
the oldest age group, the cadets. In other words, for younger wrestlers, parental beliefs in the benefits of playing sports are important, and they are characterized by more effort / importance and more satisfaction in sports. Older boys wrestlers are characterized contrary of younger boys wrestlers, regarding less perceived competence, more pressure / tension, less pleasure in sports and less parental belief in the benefits of playing sports. The oldest age group, the cadets are moderate in everything. In accordance with the aim of the research another hypothesis H2 that has been set up, was: There is a significant correlation between wrestling commitment, satisfaction level, intrinsic motivation, and social orientation. Canonical correlation analysis determined that there is a statistically significant correlation between one canonical pairs at the level of 0,01, and that has confirmed our hypothesis. A relatively high statistical value of the canonical correlation coefficients for the canonical pair was achieved, which is, F1 = 0,65, which explains 42 % of
the total variance at the significance level p < 0,01. The canonical factors of the first and
second sets of variables in the canonical pair are connected by social orientation in the form
of group acceptance, parental support in the form of parental belief in the benefits of sports
and positive reinforcements, and olso variables of intrinsic motivation "interest / enjoyment"
and "perceived competence". The obtained results show that there is a statistically significant
difference in social motivation between different age groups of young wrestlers and they
point out the importance of motivation for achieving positive affective outcomes that young
people can achieve in sports. Satisfaction in sport strongly correlates with commitment to sports (0,78). Most respondents think that peers’ wrestlers want to be friends with them and that they like to spend time with them. They feel that their parents are extremely proud of them being in
wrestling, that their parents are supportive, that their parents think that other athletes are good
company for them, and they know that their parents think that wrestling is good for their
health. For coaches, most respondents say that they are very satisfied when they are doing
well in wrestling, that they are positive and it is important for them to be encouraged and
praised by their coaches. Intrinsic motivation as perceived competence and effort/importance, as well as parents' beliefs in the benefits of playing sports, proved to be the dominant factor, with joint activities outside of training and praise from their coaches. It is also clear that there is a very strong correlation between commitment to sport and satisfaction in sport. Moderate positive correlation connects the variable of the subdimension of intrinsic motivation, "interest/enjoyment" and the variable of the subdimension of social orientation "group acceptance". In addition, a negative correlation was found between the subdimension of intrinsic motivation "interest / enjoyment" and the dimension of satisfaction in sports and commitment to sports, which could mean that boys wrestlers feel less satisfaction when they feel effort in training and competitions. The obtained results show that there is a statistically significant difference in social motivation between different age groups of young wrestlers and emphasize the importance of motivation for achieving positive affective outcomes that young people can achieve in sports. This research represents another significant contribution to the understanding the reasons for giving–up wrestling among young athletes, which is still not sufficiently researched or well scientifically explained and resolved, and has a wider social significance and exits beyond the academic community. Considering that the reasons for giving–up sports among young athletes is a socially important problem that is recognized in the world, and manifests itself in the most developed sports countries, any research of this type and in this area is a significant path in its development. This research is another step towards defining the level of connection of the social environment of young wrestlers and their level of satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and commitment to wrestling sport.