Dr. Andrija Živković, a versatile intellectual of his time, who bravely confronted various theological issues and problems; an accomplished theologian, a scientist who did not pursue instant acclaim, who contributed to the interdisciplinary school of thought in theological-ecclesial and social life in Croatia in the period from the second half of the nineteenth century to ﬁ rst half of the twentieth century. The author, through this work, has sought to present a broad synoptic study of Andrija Živković. Thus, on the basis of rich archival material, among which were found several hitherto unknown manuscripts (Osnovno moralno bogoslovlje[Basic moral theology], Kršćanske kreposti uopće, a bogoslovske i stožerne napose [Christian virtues in general, and theological and cardinal in particular], Friedrich Nietzsche kao protivnik kršćanskog morala [Friedrich Nietzsche as an opponent of Cristian morality], Razgovori o vjeri i nevjeri [A conversation on faith and disbelief], Razmatranja o etici i moralu [Considerations of ethics and morality]. Komunistički »moralˮ pred sudom ﬁ lozoﬁ je i znanosti [The communist »moralˮ before the court of philosophy and science], and Katolička društvena nauka [Catholic social doctrine]), and research methods, interpretative, synthetic-critical and narrative methods, fresh insights were gained into his life and scientiﬁ c work. To make the content of this contributed presentation more systematic, this doctoral thesis is divided into three chapters. The ﬁ rst chapter explores the life and work of Dr. Andrija Živković, regarding which based on hitherto unexplored archived materials we have arrived at new and important information on the life of this Catholic theologian. In this chapter of work the author reveals the personality of Andrija Živković, thereby positioning him in the context of his contemporary time period. Thanks to information that has remained recorded in the Personal diary of Professor Živković, we have glimpsed at the society in which he moved as well as the persons he encountered, and we have come to better understand his character traits. Homilije [Homilies] of Dr. Živković, which also remained among the heritage of archival material, represents a chronicle of a certain period while at the same time revealing his personality and thoughts. It speaks to us on the importance of personal faith in the life of the individual, of maintaining one’s relationship with God, and teaches us what kind of Christian to be in our world. Andrija Živković emphasized the value of church documents and encyclicals to make them more interesting during study, especially when considering one’s fellow priests in caring for their education. His ponderings on Christian culture have Christ as their basis, just as the foundation of European culture should also be. His special contribution to the society of his time is augmented by a rebuttal of the doctrine of ethical culture, which emphasizes man and his mind and construction of morality without God. Through his activities, Živković has spanned a longer time period than the magazine Bogoslovska smotra [Theological Review] with its multitude of presentations, reviews, sketches and scientiﬁ c articles.
The second chapter of this doctoral thesis examines the theological thinking of Dr. Andrija Živković, regarding which the author states that, despite the immense effort invested by him in theology, he remained „trappedˮ in the framework of traditional theological thinking of the time in which he lived and was active. In his theological thinking Živković was a faithful follower of the Thomistic tradition, while also leaning on the original thinking of other church fathers and moral theologians who were of particular relevance in the time he lived and was active. Since his time was characterized by talk of morals without God, thoughts of the Christian giants (Augustine, Albert the Great, St. Thomas Aquinas, etc.) were entirely side-lined, and the press of the time killed the shame in man, infatuating him with false pride, all of which motivated him to reach for the thinking of great minds from the church tradition. Although he never digressed in his theological thinking from the scholastic tradition, Živković’s quality was in that he was very speciﬁ c regarding moral issues, and sometimes very harsh in his judgements. He was never static in opinions, but developed his approach, which is also obvious from the fact that he never ran out of examples of man’s life, which he often entered as notes in the very body of his works, which also clearly emphasized his pastoral dimension. Živković’s special excellence lay in his close following of the events of his time not only regarding ideological currents among his contemporaries in society in general, but especially the theological currents within the Church. He expanded his thinking, not only referring to authors of his contemporary world’s area of discourse, but several. The main framework of this chapter of the thesis is based on the manuscript of Osnovno moralno bogoslovlje [Basic moral theology] of 1948, as compared with the printed edition from 1938, and (for the purpose of gaining the most objective insight into Živković’s theological thinking) in some places the author refers to the work Kristov zakon sv. I [Christ’s Holy Law I], by Bernhard Hӓring. The author deals with selected topics surrounding fundamental morality, attempting to demonstrate Živoković’s theological thinking as well as changes that he made to the aforementioned manuscript. When compiling the manuscript of Osnovno moralno bogoslovlje [Basic moral theology] Živković endeavoured to accept all criticisms offered by relevant theologians of his time on the published printed edition of 1938. It is for this reason that his manuscript gives great attention to the development of Croatian terminology. The novelty of that manuscript lies in the fact that the author introduced changes to the content and order of speciﬁ c topics. So in the manuscript, unlike in the book, he positions his presentation on conscience ahead of his presentation about laws, and offers as his reason the fact that conscience is an inner or closer rule of action, and for that reason he ﬁ rstly discusses conscience, and only then delves into laws that are an external or further rule. It is clear that Živković regards conscience as an inner rule of action, so he speaks about it as being God’s messenger in every man, but such an observation of conscience is due to the psychological perspective, which is especially outlined in the 1948 manuscript. Perhaps this kind of insight into conscience could entice us to conclude for a moment that Živković, in a certain sense, anticipated the doctrine of conscience of the Second Vatican Council. But this would be impossible, since the Council convened after Živković’s death. Rather, this is a case of a shift from a casuistic way of „theologising” through „general terms” and a movement toward „observation of man and his existence.” Conscience as an internal messenger is that which testiﬁ es to every man about his actions, both external and especially those inside, it prompts one if an action is performed, but also if it is missed. This is conscience in psychological terms. As judgement, evaluation or knowledge on the moral virtue of each one’s intended or performed act, conscience dictates whether any action is good or not. This is conscience from a moral perspective, and it is the topic of moral theology, as Živković pointed out in his manuscript. Živković probes deeper in the manuscript into the human person, thereby shifting slightly from a purely objective observation and pursuing a more personal observation of what transpires within a man. From such a form of observation of the human person we arrive at the area of virtue, because a virtuous man can correctly judge on certain things in life. In the latter claim is also the most important emphasis in relation to Živković’s progress in the manuscript regarding the book Osnovno moralno bogoslovlje [Basic moral theology], the author points out. Thus from the area of the morality of duties there arises the morality of virtue. Prof. Živković approaches the question of belief and unbelief, which was as relevant in the past as it is today, in his manuscript entitled Razgovori o vjeri i nevjeri [Conversations on belief and unbelief]. Suvremena razmatranja [Modern considerations], in which he places emphasis on an observation of the ideology of communism regarding the question of faith. Despite the fact that Andrija Živković in his theological thinking adhered to the line of Thomism, and was unable to emancipate himself from the „entrapment” of his time, he was relentless in developing his character, his research, and his thinking, and as a consequence he exposed himself to innovation. His openness toward the new is especially manifested to us in the third chapter of the doctoral thesis, in which the author discusses Andrija Živković as a critic of society or social ethicist. Considering the period in which Živković was active, the author presents the relationship between church and state under the guise of political questions. Then, in the ensuing sub-chapters, ideologies that prevailed in society are discussed, namely capitalism, communism, socialism of that time, with each presented as they pertain to economic development. As to political issues, and views on the state of society at that time, Andrija Živković has left these for us in his manuscript Naši putevi [Our paths], regarding which it is stated that he wrote the same as a „supporter of the Catholic movement as it ruled at the time.ˮ Živković wrote a great deal on social subjects of his time, and the society in which he lived. The most credible evidence of this is the manuscript Katolička društvena nauka [Catholic social doctrine], which remained part of his legacy and which is also the most relevant indicator of discourse on the development of social thought. In the works of Dr. Živković the impact on ofﬁ cial church documents is clearly visible, especially the encyclicals Rerum novarum of Pope Leo XIII, and Quadragesimo anno of Pope Pius XI, which informed the development of his Catholic social thinking, as clearly shown by the author. By studying the social teachings of the Church, Christians gradually arrive at their beliefs, thus granting them the capability in speciﬁ c cases to make a stand toward the judgement of their conscience. The vision of society given to us by Prof. Živković endeavours to strengthen people’s faith in Christ. Thus the Christian, as presented in his works, would be a ﬁ ghter for faith and a man always having the objective of truth as his priority, despite all ideological trends in which he ﬁ nds himself. The priority for Andrija Živković was the promotion of general good both in life and in work. When discussing social subjects we draw special attention to Živković’s discussion on social virtues, regarding which we emphasize his onus on the personalistic dimension, because all social virtues are a reﬂ ection of our actions in accordance with the will of God. Ultimately the author suggests that the social issue is not, for Dr. Živković, an economic one, and how it cannot be limited to outward ownership, because this inevitably raises the question of the spiritual or the question of faith with all the difﬁ culties of conducting one’s moral life both within and outside the social community. Christians must develop the social dimension in their lives, as Živković emphasized, so that love of neighbour can be as fruitful as possible. Christ the Lord above all loved mankind, and in doing so left an example to follow. Therefore, we will certainly do no wrong if we repeat Živković’s words, that we cannot be passive Christians or „so-called Christians.ˮ Considering the rich scientiﬁ c work that Andrija Živković failed to disclose during his life, we can say that this man, a Croatian priest and theologian, ploughed a deep furrow rooted on the Christian faith in the history of moral theology