disertacija
Fauna stjenica (Insecta: Heteroptera) u ekološkoj infrastrukturi vinograda

Kristijan Franin (2016)
Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Agronomski fakultet
Podaci o radu
NaslovFauna stjenica (Insecta: Heteroptera) u ekološkoj infrastrukturi vinograda
AutorKristijan Franin
Voditelj/MentorBožena Barić (mentor)
Jozo Rogošić (komentor)
Sažetak rada
Stjenice su ekološki raznolika skupina kukaca koja ima veliku važnost u poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji. Osim fitofagnih (štetnih) u vinogradima su zastupljene i brojne vrste zoofagnih stjenica koje imaju bitnu ulogu u biološkom suzbijanju nekih štetnika vinove loze. U integriranoj i ekološkoj proizvodnji biološka metoda zaštite bilja često predstavlja važan segment suzbijanja štetnih organizama, ali i očuvanja biološke raznolikosti. Jedan od temeljnih alata u povećanju i održavanju biološke raznolikosti proizvodnih površina je ekološka infrastruktura čija je svrha stvoriti uvjete za razvoj korisnih organizama. Cilj rada bio je istražiti utjecaj različitih načina vinogradarske proizvodnje i ekološke infrastukture na brojnost i sastav faune stjenica. Istraživanje je provedeno od 2010. do 2012. godine u vinogadima s ekološkom, ekstenzivnom i integriranom vinogradarskom proizvodnjom. U svakom vinogradu odabrana su po tri podlokaliteta na različitoj udaljenosti od ruba vinograda (3m, 10m i 50m) s kojih su uzeti uzorci. Fauna unutar vinograda je uzorkovana metodom otresanja mladica, a s područja ekološke infrastrukture metodom košnje entomološkom mrežom. Tijekom istraživanje pronađeno je i determinirano sveukupno 4196 jedinki stjenica, odnosno 58 vrsta unutar 14 porodica. Iz dobivenih rezultata statistički su uočene značajne razlike u brojnosti vrsta stjenica u odnosu na lokalitete tijekom trogodišnjeg istraživanja. Najveći broj vrsta pronađen je u zoni 3m udaljenoj odruba vinograda.Taj podatak ukazuje na važnost održavanja zakorovljenih površina u neposrednoj blizini samog vinograda. Najveće vrijednosti indeksa (Shannon Diversity Index) bioraznolikosti zabilježene su na lokalitetu Baštica. Najveću sličnost u sastavu faune stjenica (Sörenson Index) pokazali su lokaliteti Baštica (integrirani vinograd) i Dolac (ekstenzivni vinograd) koji ujedno imaju i najveću sličnost u sastavu korovne flore. Uočena je povezanost (jaka pozitivna koorelacija) između broja biljaka iz porodica Apiaceae i Asteraceae i broja predatorskih stjenica. Istraživanje dominantnosti pokazuje da je napodručju ekološkog vinograda eudominantna vrsta Macrotylus atricapillus, na području ekstenzivnog vinograda Macrotylus atricapillus i Nysius graminicola, a integriranog nasada Nysius graminicola. Unutar samog vinograda metodom otresanja je pronađeno svekupno 5 vrsta fitofagnih i 1 vrsta zoofagnih stjenica što potvrđuje hipotezu da su ovi kukci najviše vezani za vegetaciju unutar ekološke infrastrukture vinograda. Rezultati ovog istraživanja govore u prilog važnosti formiranja i održavanja ekološke infrastrukture, pogotovo cvjetajućih korovnih vrsta na rubnom dijelu proizvodne površine na brojnost i raznolikost stjenica.
Ključne riječistjenice (Heteroptera) fauna ekološka infrastruktura korovi vinograd
Naslov na drugom jeziku (engleski)True bugs fauna (Insecta: Heteroptera) in ecological infrastructure of vineyard
Povjerenstvo za obranuJasminka Karoglan-Kontić (član povjerenstva)
Emilija Raspudić (član povjerenstva)
Sandro Bogdanović (član povjerenstva)
Ustanova koja je dodijelila akademski/stručni stupanjSveučilište u Zagrebu
Agronomski fakultet
MjestoZagreb
Država obraneHrvatska
Znanstveno područje, polje, granaBIOTEHNIČKE ZNANOSTI
Poljoprivreda (agronomija)
Fitomedicina
UDK633/635
PRIMIJENJENE ZNANOSTI. MEDICINA. TEHNIKA. TEHNOLOGIJA
Hortikultura. Voćarstvo. Vinogradarstvo. Vrtlarstvo
631/632
PRIMIJENJENE ZNANOSTI. MEDICINA. TEHNIKA. TEHNOLOGIJA
Poljoprivreda. Biljne bolesti. Zaštita biljaka
Vrsta studijasveučilišni
Stupanjposlijediplomski doktorski
Naziv studijskog programaPoljoprivredne znanosti
Akademski / stručni nazivdoktor/doktorica znanosti, područje biotehničkih znanosti, polje poljoprivreda
Kratica akademskog / stručnog nazivadr. sc.
Vrsta radadisertacija
Jezik hrvatski
Datum obrane2016-11-18
Sažetak rada na drugom jeziku (engleski)
True buges (Insecta: Heteroptera) are ecologicaly very different group of organisms and they play an immportant role in agricultural production. According to their feeding habitats we can clasified them in three clases; phytophagus, zoofag and omnivores. Some species can cause serious problems in grape production. True bugs also act as agents in biological control of some immportant agricultural pests. Elements of ecological infrastucture such as wildflower strips, hedges and weeds could help beneficial bugs to survive offering them prey, nectar and pollen during the growing season. Weeds can enhance the abundance and diversity of beneficial heteroptera. They also can provide support for biological control at the local and landscape level. The aim of this PhD study was to determine the influence of different types of production as well as ecological infrastructure on true bugs abundance and diversity in vineyards. The study was carried out in three vineyards (organic, extensive and integrated vineyard) in Zadar County(Croatia). The samples were collected from May to October during 2010, 2011 and 2012.The true bugs were collected using a standardised sweep net method every fifteen days.For each sample 50 sweeps were made. In each vineyard three zones 3m, 10m and 50m from the edge of the vineyard. True bugs in vineyard were collected by branch shaking.Visual inspection of plants was also performed to One way ANOVA (Tukey's test) was performed to ascertain differences among bug abundance and number of species.Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to ordinate the zones of research at each site onthe basis of the abundance of true bugs species. Biodiversity among sites and zones was compared using biodiversity indices (Shannon-Wiener Index, Simpson Index, Pilou Index and Sörenson Index). During this research 4185 specimens belonging to 14 families and 58 species were found. The highest number of species was found in integrated vineyard Baštica (48), where as the lowest number was recorded in ecological vineyard Posedarje (32). Significant differences were found between number of species (One Way ANOVA) (df=2, F=5,469, p<0,05). Signifficant difference was also found between number of specimens among zones of research (df=7, F=3,269; p<0,05). The highest number of species was recorded in Baštica (A). In locality Baštica 406 specimens were recorded,until in Posedarje 353 specimens were collected. Among number of individuals statistical differences were not found. In ecological vineyard 1065 specimens belonging to 11 families and 32 species were collected. Eudominant species was Macrotylus atricapillus(58.02%). In Baštica 1105 specimens belonging to 14 families and 48 species were found.Eudominant species was Nysius graminicola (35.29%). In Dolac (extensive vineyard) 1218 specimens belonging to 14 families and 44 specimens were found. Eudominantspecies in this vineyard were also Nysius graminicola (43.18%) as well as Macrotylusatricapillus (13.5%). Relationship (Spearman Rank Correlation) between number of phytophagous speciec in ecological infractructure and vineyard was not found. Accordingto Spearman Rank Correlation there was significant strong correlation (r=0,743) among the number of plants from families Apiaceae and Asteraceae and number of predatory bugs. We could confirm the asertion that plants from these families attract beneficial bugs.Significant correlation between the number of harmful and beneficial heteroptera in ecological infrastructure was not found (r=0,201). Signifficant differences were found among beneficial bugs in ecological infrastructure (df=2, F=8,538; p<0,05). Ecological infrastrucutre of extensive vineyard showed the highest number (7) of beneficial species. According to Shannon-Wiener Index integrated vineyard showed the highest value (2.66).We found very high number of phytophagus heteroptera during three years of research in ecological infrastructure, however in vineyards only 21 individuals belonging to 6 species were observed.The results of this research showed that ecological infrastructure of integrated and extensive vineyards harboured high number of true bug species whereas in ecological vineyard lower number of species and specimens were found. Higher number of plants from families Apiaceae and Asteraceae attracted more beneficial heteroptera. Ecological infrastructure especially weeds play important role in attracting and enhancing the population of true bugs. We found very few individuals of these insects in vineyards on grape shoots We could conclude that ecological infrastructure has a great impact on abundance and diversity of true bugs and achieve a more sustainable vineyard agroecosystem.
Ključne riječi na drugom jeziku (engleski)true bugs vineyard ecological infrastructure weeds diversity abundance
Verzijaobranjena verzija
Vrsta resursatekst
Prava pristupaRad dostupan samo djelatnicima i studentima matične ustanove
Uvjeti korištenja radahttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:204:067439
PohranioVanja Masnov