Razvoj suvremenih znanstveno-tehničkih postignuća nedvojbeno je doveo čovječanstvo do velikih promjena i poboljšanja životnih uvjeta na Zemlji. Svaka tehnologija postaje prilika za poboljšanje čovjeka. No, u tome nije novost promatramo li povijest razvoja tehnika i tehnologija. Novost se pojavljuje u trenutku kada eksponencijalni razvoj tih tehnologija postaje prilika za umreženje raznih tehnoloških grana (nanotehnologija, biotehnologija, informatičke i kognitivne znanosti – NBIC) pod vodstvom novog pokreta zvanog transhumanizam. Premda je to pokret mnogostrukog značenja (jer čas promiče poboljšanje čovjeka pomoću suvremenih tehnologija, čas želi okončati sve moguće ljudske granice, čas želi uspostaviti utopijsko društvo ravnopravnosti, čas se smatra religioznim pokretom bez transcendencije, čas obećava besmrtnost), važno je primijetiti da ne gleda na tehnologije kao prilike za poboljšanje životnih uvjeta, već sredstva za nadilaženje prirode, za preoblikovanje, poboljšanje i nadograđivanje čovjeka sve do stvaranja novog više nego ljudskog „čovještva“. Fizičko-morfološki, psihičkokognitivni nedostatci, proces starenja, više nisu prihvatljive i samorazumljive dinamike ljudskog života, već granice koje treba po svaku cijenu nadilaziti i u konačnici „eutanazirati“ samu smrt, najveću čovjekovu neprijateljicu. Spajanjem tih tehnologija s medicinom događa se paradigmatska promjena u samom poimanju ljudskog rađanja, razvoja i starenja. Stoga globalna tehnološka medikalizacija ljudske egzistencije, s jedne strane, se nameće kao znak napretka, dok s druge strane, budi neopisiv nemir i neizvjesnost. Tehnologija nije više kao pomoćno sredstvo, već zbiljnost koja je postala sebi svrhom zahvaljujući utjecaju sekularnih i relativizirajućih ideja o etici. Polako se gubi svijest o objektivnoj moralnosti i etičnosti u znanstveno-tehničkim istraživanjima. Ovdje se rađa etički relativizam, duh korisnosti i vladavina materijalističko-redukcionističkog poimanja čovjeka, a sama je etika lišena transcendencije. Način ophođenja sa životom sve više ostavlja dojam da je čovjek promašeno iskustvo koje treba popraviti, poboljšati i dovoditi do novog stanja, tj. transhumanog, odnosno posthumanog. Takvo ophođenje zadire u samu ontološku i identitetsku dimenziju čovjeka čija je narav svedena na puku evolucijsku činjenicu bez uporišta i konzistentnosti. Transhumanističke i posthumanističke ideologije odriču se ontologije subjekta, tiho i snažno nameću neku drugu antropologiju, odnosno vode ka post-antropologiji. Želja da se otkupljenje i blaženstvo čovjekova tijela događa po tehnologijama (o)stavlja ga u tjeskobu iz koje se ne može izvući bez Boga Stvoritelja i Otkupitelja. U takvoj dinamici, jasno je da se transhumanističko poimanje ljudske osobe nužno odudara od tradicionalne filozofsko-teološke koncepcije. Naime, transhumanistički antropološki model vidi čovjeka kao otvoreni sustav podložan raznim promjenama i manipulacijama pomoću tehnologija. Time čovjek ulazi u logiku proizvodnje i posljedično zastarjelosti. Teološko-bioetička antropologija postaje okosnica koja poziva na praćenje razvoja i osoba, na ispravno vrjednovanje ljepote ljudskog života unatoč patnjama, poteškoćama, hendikepima. Zdravlje i tehnologija potrebni su čovjeku, ali u novoj trasnhumanističkoj konstelaciji i koncepciji, zdravlju i tehnologiji je potreban izgrađen čovjek. U svjetlu tradicije crkvenog Učiteljstva i teoloških promišljanja, ovo doktorsko istraživanje nastoji aktualizirati drevne, nepresušne i nepovredive istine o čovjekovom dostojanstvu, o njegovoj otajstvenoj stvorenosti na sliku Božju, o njegovoj oslobađajućoj ovisnosti o Stvoritelju, o njegovoj nesvodivosti na puku materiju, o ljepoti i vrijednosti njegovih prirodnih granica, o stupovima čovječnosti kao što su čovjekovo „nadnaravno“ porijeklo i horizont, njegova drugost. Glavni izvor istraživanja ostaje objava dana u Svetom pismu, osobito u njenoj punini u osobi Isusa Krista, pravoga i savršenog čovjeka. Tehnološki skok kojim transhumanizam želi stvoriti hibridnog „čovjeka“, pokazatelj je gubitka smisla za život, i odraz unutarnjeg nezadovoljstva i umora. Teologija i bioetika nanovo su pozvane u takvoj tehnološkoj kulturi aktualizirati spomenute istine o čovjeku, jer je glavni izazov prije svega spasiti čovjeka, a to iziskuje integralnu ljudsku ekologiju i etiku granice.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The title of this doctoral thesis Theological-bioethical evaluation of transhumanist anthropology wants to stimulate critical thinking about a new paradigm of modern scientifictechnological society in which the human loses control over the speed of his own achievements that are becoming more and more uncontrollable. We are facing a new territory where the challenge for theological speech is growing, not so much about God but about the human himself. It is about a postmodern transhumanist movement that for many may still seem as a science fiction. While Christian theology tries to actualize ancient, inexhaustible and irrefutable truth about human dignity, about the mystery of his creation in God’s image, about his liberating dependence on the Creator, about his irreducibility to a mere matter, about the beauty and the value of his natural boundaries, about the pillars of the humanity, such as the human’s „supernatural“ origin and the horizon, his otherness, etc., transhumanism ignores almost all that and reaches for social Darwinism, but through technological jump by which it wants to create a new type of human, i.e. a hybrid being. Due to different views, tendencies and the development of the movement itself, nowadays it is more correct to talk about the transhumanism, because first they promote the improvement of the human through modern technologies, then they want to eliminate all possible human boundaries, then they want to establish a utopian society of equality, then they consider themselves as a religious movement without transcendence, and then they promise immortality. Because of such a wide scope, through this thesis we decided to reflect on their vision of the human. This approach does not exclude sporadic and partial review of different views of this movement. There is no doubt that transhumanism strongly impacts changes in the traditional anthropological paradigm from philosophical or theological perspective, and consequently brings many ethical and social challenges. Modern technological innovations under the transhumanism enforce a vision of the world which sees the Creature as a mere reality that needs to be demythologized. The devastating impact of such perception of human history is obvious. It creates a reductionist understanding of every being, especially the human who is reduced to a genetic form. Consequently, the human is exposed to all kinds of manipulation all the way to hybridization, i.e. cybernetics. From corporeality to reason, from feelings to intellect, from art to philosophy, all is reducible to a „gene“. The human is dispersing in matter from which he was accidentally created Such reductionist comprehension of the human being and his future through possibilities offered by various technologies clearly is not guided by the idea of technology as a functional and auxiliary tool for better life on Earth, but is consumed with a firm attitude toward a human as useless being that needs to be transformed, enhanced, improved and upgraded through technology. This is the movement that intrudes the ontological and identity dimension of the human. A new anthropology or post-anthropology of the transhumanism appears, and technology is its main hermeneutical key for understanding of the human and life. Theology as a science, especially in its moral-bioethical branch, draws its source from the proclamations of the Scripture, especially its fullness in the person of Jesus Christ, the true and perfect human. For this reason, moral theology cannot remain indifferent toward this radical reductionist comprehension of the human. Transhumanist ambitions of creating more than a human man, already in itself contains certain „theological“ implications. Of course, moral theology tries to accurately evaluate and accept every good and noble achievement in all areas of human activity, including technology. But, because of the dignity and the wellbeing of the human himself, moral theology tries to deepen awareness and awake conscience about the primacy of the person over objects, about the primacy of the spirit over matter, and about the primacy of ethics over technique, therefore, about the impossibility of technological creation of a superhuman without destroying the human himself. In other words, left to itself or under the influence of various scientological movements, the scientific-technological paradigm under the influence of transhumanism carries the danger of destruction of the human and the world, as well as depriving the human of his transcendental stronghold. Every progress is a result of human desire for better life. But in scientific-technological sense, does better life always mean life fulfilled with meaning? There is no doubt that the main fulfilment of the human is not achieved by the triumphalist achievements of the technological sciences, or by blind moralism without faith, or by fundamentalism without love, but by the ability to experience and receive life as a precious gift from God the Creator and Redeemer. Besides, the true essence of the scientist and believer (theologian) is not the possession of undeniable truths, but tireless longing for the truth and the source which always escapes our control and opens the way to the mystery of the creation and the Creator. And the faith in the person of Jesus Christ is the main source of happiness and immortality for which transhumanist movement strives for. That faith is the main motive and raison d'être for this doctoral thesis. Structure of the doctoral thesis includes four main chapters. The research method is characteristic for moral-theological science in general, particularly the moral-bioethical science. It questions and analyses the sources and foundations of Christian anthropology.Considering the complexity and the width of the topic of this thesis, the emphasis is on interdisciplinarity with the analytical-critical method from various sources. That interdisciplinarity opens a path toward other scientific fields – such as sociology, biotechnology, psychology, biomedicine, robotics, philosophy, ecology, etc. – and leads us to a theological-bioethical explanation of their contents. The first chapter of doctoral theses titled “Main achievements in scientific-convergent technologies”, starts from semantic analysis and transitional dynamics of the term technique into technology. Then it tries to illuminate some significant scientific-technological achievements, the areas of application of these technologies and expected perspectives according to “prophetic” announcements of transhumanism supporters. Areas that are in our focus are nanotechnology, biotechnology, neurosciences and computer sciences. The reason for choosing these four fields is grounded in the fact that transhumanism aspires to merge these areas in order to accomplish its own anthropological views. The achievements used by this movement include various financial challenges. The desire to improve the human life on Earth includes an insatiable desire for interest, that is, benefit. Furthermore, one of the main characteristics of the modern world functioning is the speed that controls life. While that speed, on the one hand, wants to provide a decent living standards for humans as soon as possible, on the other hand, it insults the dignity of the human through the promise of the possibility of immortal life on Earth. That immortality is possible thanks to future brain research which accelerates the development of artificial intelligence. But, is such intelligence that would first reach and then overcome human intelligence possible? Is it even possible to perceive the complexity of the human brain? All these possibilities are calling for urgent and awake theological and ethical judgment. The second chapter “Basic ideas and the main features of transhumanist anthropology” draws attention to the central motive of this thesis: anthropology of the transhumanism. Transhumanism, as a movement that stirs up the desire for better and enhanced human life, is a complex reality. Therefore, in the research we maintain its basic understanding of the human and its promise about enhancement which should create more than a human. Basic features of the transhumanism are at the same time basic features of the postmodern society which stands out by its secularism and relativism. The exposure of these features leads to a deeper understanding of the transhumanism as a movement of the relativization of human life, and removing every sense of holiness and transcendence. In the embrace of transhumanism, the human is subjected to different shapes and types of manipulation, with intension of improving biological, genetic, cognitive and psychological functions. The intent of a radical change of human life is followed by the view of human nature that is dissipating and represents no more safe and permanent ground for understanding human as is. The disappearance of the human nature from the horizon of transhumanist opinion exacerbated the disappearance of natural moral law as inherent fact in the human nature itself. Human nature is reduced to a mere evolutionary fact that prevents the observation of the human as an ontological being. In place of ontology comes technology, and this gives transhumanist anthropology a “weapon” for creating more than a human or, in other words, a superhuman. A human with technologies in his hands replaces the dignity of the co-creator with dignity of the true creator who wants everything he can get with the help of technologies. In fact, transhumanism emphasizes the eternal idea of improving the human present from the Enlightenment through humanism until today. But, the peculiarity of the modern state lies in the transhumanist promise of the eternal youth and longevity. The third chapter “Philosophical-ethical background of transhumanist anthropology” continues with the analysis from the previous chapter with a brief description of philosophy and metaphysics of technology. This chapter deals with a sort of return to the source. In order to better understand the logic of transhumanism which assumes a realized technological society that we are already in, attention must be paid to the historical-epistemological development of technologies with the intent of deeper philosophical-theological understanding of technology, whose main characteristic is anthropological and ethical ambivalence. Such understanding casts the light on challenges (of the transhumanist movement) encountered by a modern human. These challenges draw their strength from various philosophical reflections that deny the ontological and transcendent value of the human and his fundamental calling. The promise of immortality and the struggle against vulnerability are becoming eminent themes of theologicalbioethical reflections and call for a critical analysis of main bioethical implications of the “new religion” of transhumanism seeking its roots in Christian authors and imposes its credo of redesigning the child, permanent emotional bliss, human genome management, longevity, etc. The fourth chapter “Transhumanist anthropology in the light of conciliar and postconciliar anthropology” is the most extensive part of the thesis for a reason. First of all, it explores the transhumanist anthropology of immortality in the light of biblical doctrine. Then it shows how such anthropology is permeated by a dualistic approach that denies the value and the importance of the human body. The theology of the Ecclesiastical Mystery thus becomes the source for a correct understanding of a human as a united whole whose fullness is in telos of creation, that is, in Christ. It is a notorious fact that from the moment of conception till natural death, a human finds himself facing existential challenges that reveal his vulnerability and fragility. However, nothing that hurts him or makes him vulnerable does not diminish his dignity whose source comes from the fact that he is created in the image of God. This research chapter is focused on the post-conciliar anthropology as a criticism of the modern transhumanist anthropology. In that sense, the emphasis is on the view and the analysis of the Second Vatican Council doctrine, more accurately, on the Pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world Gaudium et spes which is the most fruitful conciliar source for our topic. Through it we come to the main points of the theological-biblical anthropology in the context of technological development. There are two fundamental determinants of theology of technology in this chapter. First, we analyse transhumanist movement in the light of the mystery and theology of incarnation as a way of humanizing the human. Second, in the light of the Paschal mystery we are examining the path of realization of fundamental human hope and bliss that endlessly surpasses the technological vision of happiness and bliss. The moral doctrine of Church in various papal documents is deepened and actualized in relation to the challenges of transhumanist anthropology. Papal teaching documents take important place. Human enhancement necessarily invokes, on the one hand, an anthropological understanding that encompasses all dimensions of human life, and on the other hand, it invokes ethic of a border as a precondition for cooperation between Christian faith and transhumanist movement. Under the tempting promises of technological development, the human is in danger of hurting his fundamental dignity. This is why this doctoral research makes sense if it wants to theologically and bioethically point to the importance of human dignity, the full development of the human and the true revolution of “human ecology” as an important sources for returning human to himself and to God who is his Creator. In this research we want to show that the search for God and the search for human is part of the same logic. That logic admits and respects the dignity of Logos who stands in the foundation of the entire reality and enables recognition of the secret of human that overcomes him infinitely. Without relying on the deepest mystery of the human, for which Council teaches that is discovered only in the incarnation of eternal Logos, the human is exposed to the danger of losing meaning and freedom. Therefore, the more transhumanism resists the correct and complete understanding of the human and the place of God in human, the more the human is trapped in materialism and immanentism. The denial of the fundamental spiritual and transcendental dimension of the human diminishes him to the “logic of the machine” which can be technologically unlimitedly repaired and allegedly improved, but in fact he is diminished to a mere object condemned to inhuman technological manipulations.The final aim of this thesis is a critical analysis and evaluation of anthropological vision of transhumanism. The character of this research is eminently interdisciplinary. It wants to show that human divine dignity does not depend on technological progress, but it was given to him by God as a task and responsibility due to the fact that he is created in the image of God and redeemed in the image of Jesus Christ. We want to contribute to both, the development of interdisciplinarity of bioethics in general and the interdisciplinarity in relation to moral theology. Furthermore, this research seeks to highlight the positive and praiseworthy dimensions of technological development with basic restriction that its use from the perspective of transhumanist anthropology carries with it the threats to the wholeness and dignity of the human. The aforementioned final aim goes through our fundamental hypothesis that states that the transhumanist anthropology, in its essence, contrasts the traditional philosophical and theological anthropology, and this is best seen in the field of modern bioethical challenges. That hypothesis excludes epidermique and negative attitude towards technological development which contributes to the prosperity and quality of human life. Our hypothesis includes a critical attitude by which the technological advancement in the embrace of transhumanist movement turns into its own opposition, therefore it becomes a regression because the human is degraded to a mere object. Transhumanism recognizes in technologies the basis for its ideas and practice, ignoring the misuses that are harmful for the human and his inviolable dignity. It will be possible to conclude that in the foundation of transhumanist anthropology the idea of the human as failed experience or meaningless creature is built, who should restore his meaning and happiness by means of technology. That approach rejects the traditional ontology and the truth which is promoted by Christian anthropology. Because of that, the transhumanist anthropology deserves theological and bioethical critical attention. Theology as a science has its role as guardian of the holiness and integrity of the human life in every sense. As such, it encourages us – through the texts of the Scripture, Church documents and deliberation of theologians and bioethicists – to continuously and in a new way actualize the mystery of the human in the light of the mystery of the Trinity God. The sources of this research are primarily the Scripture and already mentioned document of the Second Vatican Council, Pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world Gaudium et spes, documents of the Ecclesiastical Teaching, theological sources in general and moral-bioethical literature in particular, then the professional and scientific literature of the promoters of transhumanism.Through this research, it is clear that the world – including the human – has become an open system and subject to various experimental attempts to improve the human. This is not a novelty in itself, because the human has always been carrying this desire for improving living conditions. However, the novelty lies in a paradigmatic change that goes beyond and almost rejects the traditional philosophical-theological understanding of the human and the created world. The main driver of this new paradigm can be found in the uncontrollable growth rate of modern technology. We came to the point where the relationship between the benefits, the gains, the profit, and the negative consequences of technological development does not seem to be very useful for a human. The worst economic, political and social status becomes, the bigger the promise in better and superhuman life under the power of technocracy gets. The turn in teleology brought us to a state of uncertainty and deepening the gap between the rich and the poor. The ancient teleology perceived the world as a harmonious and arranged communion in which every element has its place and meaning. That is also the biblical understanding of the world, the work of a good and caring God the Creator. New teleology has transformed the human nature into an open machine subjected to various manipulations and changes. This kind of technological teleology wants to avoid a chaos in the world, but actually accelerates it, with the danger of leaving, without protection and defence, those who have not learned to live without it. This is obviously the result of the galloping transhumanization of the reality that takes place extensively through a unified and complex marriage of convergent technologies. Although transhumanism remembers quiet, secret and shy beginnings in the 1990s in California, today it imposes itself in the midst of mixed and contradictory attitudes: from enthusiasm to total rejection. Our research shows that transhumanist movement aimed at increasing and improving physical, physiological, psychical, mental and emotional abilities of the human with considerable prolongation of the lifetime, is not just a movement of blind and banal confidence in technological progress, but carries a utopian desire to overcome what is human in the human species to come up with a new type of “human”. What is the future of the human and the movement itself depends on the guidelines we want to give to the technological progress, on content we want to introduce into artificial intelligence, robotics and human genome on the one hand, and on the understanding of human vulnerability, soul, awareness, freedom and biomedical improvement of living conditions, on the other hand. In that spirit, there is no transhumanist technology as a separate scientific-technological branch, but transhumanist ideas, wishes and attempts that capture and merge technologies by giving them the transhumanist goals. At the end, the human is the space for experimenting with these goals. The transhumanist anthropology in this experimental endeavour remains radical though its wishes to overcome the human biological condition and its perception of technological development, despite the devastating anthropological-ecological consequences that are now becoming an additional springboard for human transformation. This transformation leaves two directions: either by adapting to the resulting eco-anthropological changes or by rising towards the conquest of the vastness of the space under the mask of the arrival of singularity, i.e. epochal separation with humanity. Our doctoral research brought us back to the ancient questions left under the ashes, but which are still tormenting mankind. These questions have been drawn through various socialpolitical systems, such as communist, neo-liberal, economic, Nazi and eugenic ideologies. Therefore, transhumanism has the merit of imposing those questions in the new cloak by invoking the eternal and painful philosophical-theological, moral-bioethical search for the meaning of human existence and its purpose. That existence does not have its beginning or purpose per/in itself, but draws its raison d'être in God, the Creator and Redeemer, who invites us, in his love, to a responsible cooperation in creation, even with the help of technology. More than the expression of infidelity, rebellion and struggle against God, transhumanism is primarily a call for redefining our humanity, for a humble discovery of the beauty of vulnerability, for a serious understanding of the supremacy of human dignity despite its limitations, handicaps, diseases and weight of age, and on the paschal view of the mystery of mortality, with the certainty that life without death is really life without life, and where you do not die, you do not live. Observed from the theological-bioethical perspective, we can conclude that by denying the miracle of human life, transhumanism sings the end of morality and ethics present for thousands of years in great philosophical-legal and religious-theological traditions of every culture. Those traditions have found the justification, objectivity and sacredness of their morallegal-philosophical systems in relatively stable concept of the subject and its destiny. The belongingness to the human species has always confirmed the fact that the subject possesses inviolable and unconditional dignity equal to all other human beings, despite its health, mental and physiological condition. In that sense, our research shows that transhumanist anthropology leads the human species toward the risk of categorizing some as more human than others. This will make one category of (transhumanist) people – with the help of applying technology – the superior species. Therefore, the doors are open, not only to a radical rejection of God, but also to a devastating rattle of correct understanding of the human, and consequently, to destroying the concept of equal dignity of all humans. Theological anthropology, especially moral anthropology, has always emphasized the supremacy of human dignity, but with the awareness that this supremacy obtains its fullness and meaning only in the mystery of Jesus Christ, God and Man. He took the human body to show the human its beauty. He became a man so that the man could remain the man, not the cyborg, aware that his roots are in Heaven, in God. He was lifted up on the cross to prove to the human that he was created for something more, not with the help of technology, but through the vulnerability of love. He confirms through his resurrection that the fundamental human desire for immortality is not fulfilled by quantity and sophistication of technological improvement, but by a close connection with God of the living. Council documents warn us about that, especially Gaudium et spes, but also papal teaching, aware of the following: the development and realization of new intellectual, scientific, technological content contribute significantly to the betterment of life on Earth. However, that contents, because of its ambivalent character, can be hazardous if it is deprived of the connection with God, the Creator and Redeemer. In the light of the documents of Ecclesiastical Teachings, we have found that the council theology of the Incarnation is a fundamental starting point for a possible reflection on transhumanism. Such theology rejects the dualism of transhumanist anthropology which ignores the value of the bestowed human body. The attempt of rejecting God, under the protection of transhumanism, slowly leads to rejection of the human himself, observed solely in the form of matter. The desire for production of biological systems that do not exist in nature, intention to write a book of nature, not to read from it, the desire for hybridization of the human at all costs, are just some of the worrying facts that are promoted by transhumanist anthropology through materialization of the human and humanization of the machine. There is a strong, deep, but (un)visible anthropological crisis in progress, that speaks about certain tiredness of being a human. On the one hand, there is a desire to break the relationship with something that is profoundly human, and on the other hand, the desire for longevity and perfect health speaks about a certain paradox of human nature. We have found that such anthropology observes human life as a product and thus, the human is condemned to obsolescence, like machines or other technological objects. The devastating manipulation of looking at the human announces the disappearance of the human and the arrival of posthumans. Our belief is that the human has never been and must never be subjected to the transhumanist-technological logic that produces obsolescence.Human discovers the truth about himself if he does not cease, in humility, to accept the beauty of what it means to be imago Dei, that is, imago Christi, which at the same time reveals the beauty of creation through conscientious and responsible action. Therefore, in this doctoral research we tried to point to the fact that by casting doubt on the truth about the human nature, the transhumanism and other technicist ideologies, abandon the ontology of the subjects by creating the post-anthropology whose main metaphysical truth is uncertainty and insecurity. With that uncertainty, the human falls into ontological emptiness from which he can be freed only by the faith in God, who loves all that is created. Finally, we should point out that our goal was to try to analyse the anthropology of transhumanism, starting from the Catholic moral theology and bioethics. Have we fully and exhaustively accomplished this goal? Surely not. As no human work is devoid of any deficiency, this research is not the whole insight into the chosen topic. Unfortunately, we have not succeeded and we will not succeed to eliminate or supplement all imperfections, because we bear awareness about our own imperfections as onion layers: if we remove all of there, there is nothing left of the onion. The topic is still complex, up-to-date and challenging for moral theology and bioethics. Considering its core requires more in-depth knowledge of other scientific disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, medicine, biology, computer science, biotechnology, nanotechnology, neuroscience, etc., we believe that this research is a great introduction for further work in this field, with awareness that Christian theology must continue to be the corrective for protecting the human from self-destruction. Because of the importance of the topic and the scarcity of theological-bioethical literature in this field, it will occupy our interest for transhumanist movement for a long time.