U ovoj doktorskoj disertaciji iznosi se povijest ninske komune od kraja Ciparskoga rata 1573. do kraja Kadijskog rata 1669. godine. Navedeni ratovi vodili su se u Sredozemlju između Mletačke Republike i Osmanskog Carstva, a odrazili su se na njihove sukobe na teritoriju sjeverne Dalmacije. U tim je sukobima velika razaranja pretrpjela ninska komuna, koju je u ranome novom vijeku činio grad Nin s okrugom. Tada je to područje bilo pod mletačkom upravom te se teritorij ninske komune nalazio na sjecištu triju granica: mletačke, habsburške i osmanske. Područje trodijelne granice u sjevernoj Dalmaciji bilo je pogubno za teritorij ninske komune zbog čestih pljačkaških upada habsburških plaćenika Uskoka iz Podvelebitskog primorja i osmanskih podanika Morlaka iz unutrašnjosti Ravnih kotara. Stoga je u disertaciji posebno analiziran geostrateški i politički položaj Nina i okruga u ranome novom vijeku. U tom je razdoblju Nin zadržao autonomiju koju je stekao privilegijama u XIII. stoljeću, ali samo prividno, jer je stvarnu vlast cijelo vrijeme imala Mletačka Republika. Od tada, pa do sloma mletačke uprave u XVIII. stoljeću Nin je u svim pitanjima ovisio o odlukama mletačkih predstavnika u Zadru, glavnom gradu provincije Mletačka Dalmacija. U disertaciji se nastoji prikazati prividna autonomija ninske komune u relativno mirnom razdoblju tijekom ranoga novog vijeka, a to je od 1573. do 1646. godine te se stvarno stanje u političkom, društvenom i ekonomskom smislu tog mirnog perioda nastoji objasniti na temelju analize podataka iz ninskog katastra iz 1675. godine, kada je, iza Kandijskog rata (1645. – 1669.) provedena nova agrarna reforma. Istraživački rad o tome temelji se na povijesnim dokumentima iz Državnog arhiva i Znanstvene knjižnice u Zadru te Arhiva Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti u Zagrebu. Stanovništvo u komuni, koje je činila politička podjela na staleže (plemići, pučani i svećenstvo) i stanovništvo u selima u okrugu sastavljali su kupoprodajne ugovore i ugovore o najmu zemlje te na taj način vodili brigu o materijalnoj stabilnosti svoje obitelji i gospodarskom razvoju komune i okolnih sela u tom razdoblju. Na temelju tih dokumenata u disertaciji se ujedno prate migracije koje su na tom području bile česte uslijed spomenutih ratova.
|Abstract (english)|| |
This doctoral dissertation brings a history of Nin commune since the end of the Cyprus war in year 1573 by the end of the Candian War in year 1669. These wars were held in the Mediterranean between the Venetian Republic and the Ottoman Empire and were reflected in their conflicts on the territory of northern Dalmatia. In these conflicts, the Nin community suffered great devastation. Nin commune at that time consisted as city within the walls and villages in the district. From the year 1409 the area of Nin was under Venetian rule and territory of commune located at the intersection of three borders: the Venetian, Habsburg and Ottoman. Area tripartite border in northern Dalmatia was fatal for the territory of the commune of Nin due to frequent looting Habsburg mercenaries Uskoci from Velebit littoral and Ottoman subjects Morlachs from Ravni kotari. Therefore, the dissertation analyzes the geo-strategic and political position of Nin and the district in the early modern period. Nin commune had no statute (law book) like other dalmatian cities, but its autonomy and communal authority based on special privileges granted by Croatian ruler in the Middle Ages. The Venetian government has maintained the old privileges to Nin but is not allowed its nobility to independently choose duke. Venetia did the same in other Dalmatian communes because wanted to have control over the established government. All legislative proposals of the nobility were to be approved by the duke. This meant the loss of autonomy and the beginning of the end of Nin commune. Although Nin kept privileges from XIII. century, Nin was actually depended on Zadar, which was the capital of the Venetian rule in the provinces Dalmatia and Albania. The structure of municipal government in Nin was arranged as in other Dalmatian communes under Venetian rule in the early modern period, and consisted of a duke, and Little and Grand council composed of the local aristocracy. Material destruction of the city during the Cyprus war (1570 - 1573) reiterated at the beginning of the Candian war in Dalmatia in 1646., when Venice was destroyed Nin and prevented the Ottomans to conquer the northern Adriatic coast. The dissertation aims to show life in the commune of Nin in a relatively quiet period during the early modern age: from year 1573 to year 1646, and is based on the Nin cadastre of the year 1675 at the time of the new agrarian reform. The dissertation also investigates the consequences of Cretan War (1645 - 1669) on the development of Nin commune and the loss of its medieval autonomy. Research on this is based on historical documents from the National Archives and the Scientific Library in Zadar and Archives of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb. The population in the city of Nin was politically divided into three classes: nobles, commoners and clergy. In the villages in the district there was no political division of the population. They drew up sales contracts and lease agreements. In this way they are cared for material stability of their families and the economic development of the commune also. Cadastre from year 1609 shows the structure of the population in Nin and district, and agrarian relations in this area. Nin commune had inherited agrarian relations of the Middle Ages. The small particle size of the countries mentioned in the purchase contracts shows that on the territory of the commune existed small landowners who have given this land to residents in the district and with them entered a contract about it. Rent of lenad (livelli) were assembled in a shorter period during which the relationship between landowners and processors based on cash benefits, while lease (colonia) contracted for a long time and they could be transferred into the ownership of the male line under the same contractual conditions. Obligation of the lessee to the owner of the land was in giving fruits and special gifts for religious holidays (regalia). In the reports of the Venetian officials (dukes, general governor) for the period from Cyprus to the Canadian war found a lot of information about Nin as unforfied city. In Venetian - Ottoman wars (1499-1502., 1537th to 1540th and 1570th to 1573rd year Nin was exposed to destruction by the Ottoman army and suffered great material damage walls, buildings and religious monuments. Reports are sent to the Senate in Venice and require financial resources for reconstruction Nin walls and the construction of new fortifications in the area of the district. Also, they warned that the defense of the town of Nin and his district is important to defend the city of Zadar. The Council of the town of Nin is not mentioned in these reports as a legislative body. Also, in the cadastre of the 1675th year, drawn up after the Cretan War and the establishment of new lines of demarcation we find no evidence that the Nin Council had any influence in making important decisions for the restoration of Nin commune. In Senate in Venice was reelected duke for Nin after Canadian war and Council was convened again. Then some representatives of the Venetian government in Zadar suggested that Nin commune connected with Zadar, but that did not happen because the Venice respected medieval privileges of the nobility of Nin, as well as at the beginning of the 15th century. The dissertation shows that in a relatively quiet period in the early modern period from 1573 to 1646 life in a commune (city and district) was partly possible because Nin administration was not independent as in the Middle Ages. Nin is dependent on the circumstances of Zadar and the decisions of the representatives of the Venetian rule in the city. Although Venice is left of the old privileges and laws in the district (Statute league district Nin and Novigrad collection), however, Nin failed to keep the former autonomy. In the years after the Cretan War in 1669. dependence of the Nin’s commune of Venetian rule in Zadar was great. City of Nin was destroyed, villages in the district displaced, nobles in the commune were again in the Council, but only because of the tradition kept their old privileges, while the real power of the XV. to XVIII. century throughout the territory of the commune of Nin had only Venetian Republic.