Istraživanje disertacije se odvija na platformi globalnih rasprava o učinkovitosti i kvaliteti upravljanja zaštićenim područjima, provedbi međunarodno ratificiranih konvencija i drugih sporazuma, sadašnjim raspravama o funkcijama, odgovornostima i performansama globalnog sustava zaštićenih područja. Odgovor na izazove koje donosi globalna promjena u okolišu zahtijeva potpuno inovativno razmišljanje, prelazak preko disciplinarnih granica, koji ne bi bio izvediv bez duboko integrativnog pristupa, što odražava značajne promjene paradigmi u razumijevanju koncepcije održivosti i suvremene koncepcije upravljanja zaštićenim područjima. Novim se paradigmama sve više prepoznaju obrisi nove generacije zaštićenih područja. Klimatske promjene pojačavaju hitnost znanstvenog i šire društvenog djelovanja. U znanstvenoj teoriji uočava se korištenje termina 'prilagodba' globalnim klimatskim promjenama. Informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije za razvoj (information and communication technologies for development ICT4D) područje je u nastajanju. Istraživanje se bavi pitanjem novih tehnologija, kao alatnih 'traka' učinkovitog i održivog upravljanja zaštićenim područjima, ali se razmatraju i potencijalni rizici. Napori pri procjenama usluga ekosustava kao izravnih i neizravnih tokova doprinosa ekosustava na ljudske dobrobiti i pristupu novoj koncepciji Usluga ekosustava promijenili su uvjete rasprave o zaštiti prirode, upravljanja prirodnim resursima, te drugim područjima javne politike. Sada je već posve jasno da zaštita i očuvanje prirode i zaštita ekonomskog upravljanja tim istim procesima ne moraju nužno predstavljati kompromis između 'okoliša' i 'razvoja'. Planiranje prihvatnog kapaciteta, provođenje politika održivog razvoja, upravljanje tokovima (kretanjima) posjetitelja, primjena smjernica za upravljanje i koncepcije koje uključuju interese lokalne populacije, mjere su upravljačkog konteksta koji pomiruje povećanje ekonomskih beneficija s jedne strane i interesa zaštite s druge; iako se i ne moraju smatrati suprotstavljenim veličinama. Znanstveno istraživanje upravljanja zaštićenim područjima zahtjeva integraciju često velike količine raznih podataka iz brojnih izvora, što zahtijeva veći referentni okvir. Održivo integralno upravljanje u doktorskoj disertaciji se razmatra na određen način i kao eklektična koncepcija. Radi se o koncepciji koja se ne drži niti jedne rigidne paradigme postavljenih pretpostavki ili zaključaka, već stvara višestruke teorije kako bi se stekao uvid u fenomen održivog upravljanja i postavljanja potencijala njegove superiornosti u odnosu na prijašnje doktrine. Osnovna hipoteza po kojoj je održivo integralno upravljanje zaštićenim područjem nužan preduvjet njegove primjerene turističke valorizacije u disertaciji je potvrđena. Osnovna hipoteza testirana je na procjeni modela za upravljanje turizmom i rekreacijom na otvorenom na primjeni studija slučaja odabrane prakse upravljanja. Nalazi istraživanja mogu imati primjenu u praksama upravljanja, gdje je težište problema, ali i mogućeg rješenja, na učinkovitosti kapaciteta za upravljanje zaštićenim područjima. Procjena učinkovitosti danog okvira može poslužiti i kao podloga za izradu smjernica koje bi bile temeljima za izradu strategije upravljanja turizmom i rekreacijom na otvorenom u zaštićenim područjima.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The alarming decline of biodiversity is a global problem which is facing the world today. The new primary goal of strategic management is interested in preservation of nature, finding a solution and to stop further decline (loss) of biodiversity. Protected areas are designated as one of the foundations for the preservation of the world's remaining biodiversity. In addition, it supports the existence of more than one billion people and comprises 15 percent of global carbon reserve. Poverty and necessity for sustainable livelihoods of indigenous peoples create and integrate additional pressure in the effort to find an effective solution. Changes in world management will look for new concepts of sustainability; they will create new paradigms, creating new relationships between new participants and conventional. There is a strong need for an integrated approach to management which connects heritage protection with sustainable development. The nature of protection in the modern sense tolerates certain anthropogenic affects which do not conflict with the goals of protection. The modern concept of protected areas management lies in united ecological, economic and sociocultural aspects. All profitable entities of the protected area, along with its cultural goods, must evolve according to principles of ecological, socio-cultural, economic and technological sustainability. The integration of sustainable development into sustainable management is a perspective in constant search of management measures which would balance the rise of economic profits on the one side and the protection of the environment on the other, without any conflict from either side. A logical conclusion comes out of these diametrical premises: sustainable development as a concept which satisfies economic and conservational logic, but also respects autonomy in the standards and parameters of economic and conservational logic. When administering protected areas, it is necessary to define and monitor the crucial effects of the process, with an aim to make use of the numerous economic and environmental benefits which can be provided from sustainable management. With the growing recognition of the global challenges, all the benefits from protected areas must be deliberated by principles of sustainability. The discrepancies between the expansion of protected areas and a gradual loss of biodiversity have resulted in repeated efforts to improve effectiveness in managing protected areas. Understanding the effects of management intervention on the results of protectiveness is rendered more difficult due to lack of data, such as estimating quality and the influence of management effectiveness in maintaining and preserving protected areas. The objective of this paper is to discuss the aspect and function of evaluating efficient management as an integral part of an array of managing and strategic instruments, which are crucial elements in the system of managing protected areas. The purpose is to advance and contribute to the development of new models of sustainable mechanisms in financing protected areas, increasing management capacity and enhancing overall efficiency. Deliberating methodology in estimating efficient managing, places itself as a necessity in understanding the economic significances and administering mechanisms in protected areas. Progress towards an effective paradigm of sustainable management in protected areas is unfortunately unsymmetrical on a global level, despite the confirmation of the concept of sustainable development and its association with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Estimated risk factors (poverty, acclimatizing to climate change, war, illegal activities, absence of significant management control, corruption, potential conversion to local circumstances, effects of administering harmful legal documents) include an analysis of category, degree and significance of these risk factors in managing protected areas. This paper attempts to examine whether the damage resulting from these risks implicitly have an impact on the sustainability and integrity of biodiversity in protected areas. The debate is taking place within an economic framework, using scientific facts from other fields, aiming to understand the conditions under which protection objectives and sustainability consist of. Most recently, the case of the possible admission of Plitvice Lakes National Park on the UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger, which is based on terms of the estimated risk of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), questions the states responsibility, in this case the Croatian Republic. Applying a system to evaluate efficiency and quality of managing tourism and outdoor recreation in protected areas is set up as ‘conditio sine qua no'. The subject is about a new paradigmatic concept named Managing ecosystems, where the managing framework is explored and analysed in relation with maintaining a balance between tourist demand, outdoor recreation and the necessity to preserve resources. Managing practicum in the National Park Krka was selected. Findings in ongoing and former researches noted a touristic saturation in the Skradinski Buk locality in the past 3 years. The locality in hand is an area where outdoor recreation and touristic activities transpire. This study is a continuation of an integrated research in a broader context of the impact of certain factors of sustainability in protected areas. These findings can be applied in management practices, where crucial problems exist, and also provide possible solutions in the effective management of the capacity levels in protected areas. Analysis of this framework can also serve as a basis for designing management strategies in tourism and recreation in protected areas. Preparing for the challenges of global environmental change requires overcoming disciplinary boundaries and therefore demands a completely innovative way of thinking. This wouldn’t be achievable without a complex integrative approach that reflects the significant paradigm shift in the understanding of the concept of sustainability. This paper deals with the questions of new technologies as a tool for an effective and sustainable management of protected areas, and at the same time taking in consideration the potential risks in question. Management of protected areas requires the combination of often large amounts of data from many different sources. Incorporating this data with effective tools for assessment and evaluation contributes to planning, decision-making, and evaluation. The framework of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) is a scientific area in the process of development. Sustainability is a key concept for the system, and ICT4D plays a vital role. ICT4D refers to the use of information and communication technologies. The rapid development and integration of spatial technologies, such as, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), have created many new tools for the scientific community, however, the "digital gap" has expanded leaving many with little understanding of the usefulness of these technologies and its potential applications and advantages, but also the potential vulnerabilities of these systems. This paper researches the use of a wide range of applications and degrees of complexity of GIS, GPS and RS technologies, separately and as a whole. Modern management of protected areas is generating new paradigms which are considering protected areas as part of the planetary life. These new paradigms of strategic management are increasingly recognized in the outlines of a new generation of protected areas. The creation of new paradigms in managing protected areas is potentially providing greater opportunity to increase the parameter of appreciation towards cultural heritage, and opens new opportunities for sustainable tourism. Implications of a growing recognition of challenges in managing protected areas are being analyzed. In circumstances when the intersections of all the vectors become a new paradigm of sustainability which fulfil the primary goals of protection. One could talk about a partnership, or a divergence between objectives, which are nature conservation and sustainable exploitation of resources. The relationship between cultural heritage and tourism if considered in the context of a protected area leads to very complex interactions. In economic terms, existence of cultural resources in a protected area has a comparative advantage for the protected area. Proper planning and management of this fact should be considered also a comparative advantage for cultural heritage. Cultural heritage provides additional authenticity to a protected area, enhancing its appearance on the tourism market. Although experts from the tourism sector, professionals in managing cultural heritage and managers of protected areas, basically have common goals and interests in managing, preserving and presenting natural and cultural heritage, nonetheless, these sectors often operate on parallel levels. Indigenous peoples and local communities can also operate on these parallel levels. The effort to incorporate a principle of sustainability in the management of protected areas in the world today requires new relationships between new participants and conventional ones. Modern management of protected areas has created a new co-management paradigm for protected areas. However, the alarming decline in biodiversity due to unsustainable use of resources is a clear indicator that set global conservation objectives aren't fully realized. The final concept should be regarded as a concept which supports the economic and cultural sustainability of local communities in terms of cultural sustainability or culturally sustainable development. This should give them a chance to gain partnership and economic privileges through a cultural context. The latter especially concerns the profitable rethinking of sustainable tourism, with an accent on the National Park Krka. Sustainable cultural tourism of protected areas is possible only when all the interested parties form a true partnership which is based on mutual understanding and appreciation. The framework for creating a new paradigm of strategic management, which is 'linking the cultural corridor with strong sustainability“, would be one that supports economic and cultural sustainability of indigenous peoples. Modern management tools must be used in order to establish a fair and balanced relationship between using and conserving in the world, which is reflected in the overall preservation of human values, as being indivisible from their natural environment. Findings of this paper should help create new measures and policies aimed at achieving and maintaining a better distribution of tourism demand throughout the year, in order to increase the benefits of tourism.