Uže područje disertacije je bilo proučavanje interkulturnih i komunikacijskih kompetencija učitelja, a temeljem istraživanja koje smo proveli u osnovnim školama na području Republike Hrvatske. U ovoj doktorskoj disertaciji su se koristile dvije glavne metode prikupljanja podataka. Prva, rad na dokumentaciji u svrhu analize interkulturnih i komunikacijskih kompetencija u školskim dokumentima Republike Hrvatske kao i ostalim normativnim aktima RH koji se bave obrazovanjem. Istom metodom ispitali su se silabusi obveznih i izbornih kolegija Učiteljskog fakuleta Zagreb kako bi se utvrdilo postoje li u ciljevima i sadržajima predmeta ( i u kojima) interkulturna i komunikacijska kompetencija. Druga metoda koja se koristila u ovoj disertaciji je bila anketa. U svrhu istraživanja koristila se baterija upitnika (7 upitnika za učitelje i studente i 2 upitnika za učenike): Mjerenje komunikacijskih kompetencija autora J. McCroskey: Measure of Communication Competence, 1989., koji do sada nije bio primjenjivan u RH. Preliminarno istraživanje je obavljeno školske godine 2010./2011., a glavno istraživanje školske godine 2011./2012. Prvi cilj istraživanja bilo je ponajprije stjecanje uvida u dimenzije različitih aspekata komunikacijske kompetencije kod učitelja razredne nastave, sa stanovišta njih samih, ali i sa stanovišta percepcije njihovih učenika. S obzirom da komunikacijska kompetencija učitelja nedvojbeno utječe na kvalitetu uspostavljene suradnje s učenicima, ona se odražava i na uspješnosti učitelja u radu, ali i njihovih učenika. Uspješnost suradnje učitelja i učenika, ovisi o njihovoj usklađenosti u načinu i stilu mišljenja, osjećanja, spoznavanja i djelovanja, što djeluje općenito na njihov odnosni aspekt. Drugi bitan cilj istraživanja je istraživanje povezanosti različitih aspekata komunikacije (neverbalne kompetencije, kompetencije slušanja, strah od komunikacije, stilovi društvenog komuniciranja), sagorijevanja na poslu, samoprocjene komunikacijskih kompetencija kod učitelja razredne nastave. Za bolje razumijevanje komunikacijske kompetencije učitelja razredne nastave koji rade u praksi, treći bitan cilj je bila usporedba njihove komunikacijske kompetencije i studenata razredne nastave. Stekli smo uvid u dimenzije različitih aspekata komunikacijske kompetencije kod učitelja razredne nastave sa stanovišta njih samih, ali i sa stanovišta percepcije njihovih učenika. Premda to u ovom istraživanju nismo mogli direktno provjeriti, vjerojatno je da komunikacijska kompetencija učitelja nedvojbeno utječe na kvalitetu uspostavljene suradnje s učenicima, odražava se i na uspješnost učitelja u radu, ali i njihovih učenika. Na temelju spoznaja ovog istraživanja možemo okvirno dati smjernice za poboljšanje i nadopunu postojećih programa obrazovanja učitelja, kako redovnih, tako i programa cjeloživotnog učenja. međutim, evidentno je da inozemni instrumentarij, primijenjen u ovom istraživanju, treba bolje prilagoditi komunikacijskim karakteristikama osobitim za hrvatsku populaciju, ali i za hrvatski sustav obrazovanja. Drugim riječima, kroskulturalna prilagodba korištenih upitnika je u mnogim slučajevima nužna.
|Abstract (english)|| |
This thesis focuses on the study of inter-cultural and communicological competencies of teachers and is based on the research conducted in elementary schools in the Republic of Croatia. Two primary data collection methods have been employed. The first is documentation work for the purpose of analysing inter-cultural and communicological competencies in education archives of the Republic of Croatia as well as work on the normative acts of the Republic of Croatia dealing with education. The same method will be used to analyse the syllabuses of compulsory and elective courses of the Faculty for Teacher Education in Zagreb in order to determine whether inter-cultural and communicological competencies can be found in the course summary and aims, and if so, to take note of such courses. Four competency elements can be listed: practice of communication competence which depends on the availability of the repertoire, relevant experience, critical choice of relevant experiences by certain individuals and completion of certain tasks and goals with the help of new experiences. Inter-cultural and communicological competence, among other things, implies a certain degree of success, with which a person accomplishes its individual as well as relational goals in a certain interaction, parallel with attempting to make it possible for other participants to accomplish a certain degree of satisfaction. Special focus has been made on the non-verbal communication of teachers, as well as empathy and the understanding style as important factors in the teaching quality. Consequences of communicological incompetence are lack of motivation and skiving classes, loneliness and aggressiveness, lousy discipline, engaging in conflicts and dysfunctional cooperation of educational institutions with the parents, as well as stress among the teachers themselves. The second method that has been used in this thesis is the use of questionnaires. For research purposes we have used a number of questionnaires (7 for teachers and future teachers and 2 for students): Measure of Communication Competence by J. McCroskey, 1989., which has not been used until now in the Republic of Croatia. The preliminary research has been conducted during the school year of 2010/2011 and the primary research during the school year 2011/2012. The main aim of this research has been first and foremost to gain insight into the dimensions of different aspects of communicological competencies aspects among teachers, from their own viewpoints but also from the students' viewpoints. Given that the communicological competency of teachers beyond doubt influences the quality of the established cooperation with students, it is reflected on the successfulness of teachers in their work, but also on the students' successfulness. The successful cooperation between the teachers and students depends on their mutual compatibility with regard to the way of thinking, thinking style, empathy, understanding and action, which influences their relationship aspect in general. Second general aim of this research has been to research the connection between different communication aspects (non-verbal competence, listening competence, fear of communication, social communication styles) burn-out at work, self-evaluation of communicological competencies among teachers. In order to better understand the communicological competencies of teachers which are evident in practice, the third aim has been the comparison between their communicological competencies and those of future teachers. As an answer to the general research aims, a list of hypotheses has been made: 1. latent dimensions exist which correspond to the communication aspects (non-verbal competence, listening competence, fear of communication, social communication styles), burn-out at work, self-evaluation of communicological competencies among teachers. 2. latent dimensions exist which correspond to the aspects of interpersonal attractiveness of teachers to the students and on how the students experience the communication competence of teachers. 3. There is a correlation between the aspects of non-verbal communication competence and the aspects of listening competence among teachers 4. there is a correlation between the style of social communication aspects and burn-out at work aspects among teachers 5. there is a correlation between the development of different communication aspects (non-verbal competence, listening competence, fear of communication, social communication styles) and self-evaluation of communication competencies among teachers 6. Negative correlation exists between different communication aspects (non-verbal competence, listening competence, fear of communication, social communication styles) and aspects of burn-out at work among teachers 7. A correlation between aspects of interpersonal attractiveness of teachers to students and the development of different communication aspects (intelligibility) among teachers 8. positive correlation between the aspects of how the students see the teacher and the aspects of their evaluation of the teacher's communication competencies exists 9. there is a statistically significant difference between different communication aspects (non-verbal competence, listening competence, fear of communication, social communication styles), self-evaluation of communication competencies and burn-out at work aspects among teachers who had additional education in communication art and those who did not 10. there is a statistically significant difference between different communication aspects (non-verbal competence, listening competence, fear of communication, social communication styles), self-evaluation of communication competencies and burn-out at work aspects among students and the teacher with working experience We have gained insight into the dimensions of different communication competencies aspects among teachers from their own viewpoints, but also from their students' viewpoints. Although it could not directly be verified in this research, it is possible that the communicological competence of teachers has an influence on the quality of established cooperation with students, and is being reflected on their success as teachers but also on the success of their students. Based on the knowledge we have gained form this research we can give certain guidelines for improving the already existing teacher education programmes, as well as whole-life learning programmes. However, it is evident that the instruments, which have been used in this research, should be better adapted to the communicological characteristics that are common to the Croatian population but also to the Croatian education system. In other words, the cross-cultural adaptation of the used questionnaires is in many cases necessary.