U doktorskome radu Pijanistice zagrebačke sredine s kraja 19. i prve polovine 20. stoljeća u svjetlu suvremenoga pijanizma i glasovirske pedagogije razmatra se udio i uloga pijanistica u početnim stadijima razvoja pijanizma u zagrebačkoj sredini. Teorijski okvir od kojega rad polazi feministička su muzikološka istraživanja, napose ona čija je namjera proširiti vidno polje discipline kako bi se uključile žene. Budući da su znanstvena istraživanja pijanizma u zagrebačkoj sredini još uvijek rijetka, ovaj rad donosi prikaz povijesti pijanizma u navedenu razdoblju, raščlanjujući je u tri etape: od pojave instrumenata s tipkama do osnutka klavirne učione glazbene škole Hrvatskoga glazbenoga zavoda 1872. godine, od 1872. do osnutka Muzičke akademije u Zagrebu 1920. godine i naposljetku od 1920. do 1945. godine, u razdoblju obilježenome pedagoškom djelatnošću rodonačelnika Zagrebačke pijanističke škole Svetislava Stančića i prvih generacija njegovih diplomanada i diplomandica. Istraživanje se temelji na proučavanju dostupnih primarnih izvora, prije svega ostavština pijanistica, kao i relevantnih sekundarnih izvora. Zastupljenost pijanistica kao nastavnica i učenica u glazbeno-obrazovnome sustavu, a potom i u javnoj koncertnoj djelatnosti, analizira se kvantitativno, a individualna postignuća pojedinih pijanistica istražuju se kvalitativno prateći nekoliko kriterija: njihovo obrazovanje kao ishodište pijanističke djelatnosti, utjecaj pojedinih europskih pijanističkih škola na njihovo pijanističko formiranje, opseg i karakter njihove koncertne djelatnosti, opseg i karakter njihova pedagoškoga rada i naposljetku posebnosti poput redaktorskoga rada ili vođenja glazbeno-obrazovnih ustanova. Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju nezaobilazan utjecaj pijanistica na razvoj hrvatskoga pijanizma u navedenu razdoblju, unatoč društvenim okolnostima koje nisu bile naklonjene intelektualnom i javnom umjetničkom djelovanju žena toga vremena.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The doctoral dissertation Female pianists of Zagreb environment at the end of 19th and in the first half of the 20th century, in the light of contemporary pianism and piano pedagogy presents research based on a study of the role of female pianists in the formative processes of the development and affirmation of pianism in the Zagreb environment. The underlying theoretical framework is the feminist musicological research conducted under the so-called “New musicology” movement, with the aim of reconstructing the history of pianism in the Zagreb environment, in order to analyze the role and activity of women within this environment and assign them to the narrative of Croatian music history. Research of pianism in the Zagreb environment is still rare. Therefore, this work presents a first overview of the development of pianism from the earliest appearance of keyboard instruments to the first private piano lessons, followed by their institutionalization and finally the creation of the so-called Zagreb school of pianism, while following the development of concert activity and piano pedagogy. The research is based on a study of available primary sources, primarily the legacy of female pianists, as well as relevant secondary sources yet to be systematized, evaluated, and interpreted as systematic scientific insights into the topic of local pianism. The introductory chapter presents theoretical starting points of the research and positions it within the framework of feminist musicological research. It also contains a literature review, with emphasis on the rare occurrences of systematic research of pianism in Zagreb, consisting mainly of partial overviews of individual pianists or specific segments of their work. This chapter describes the research methodology used to confirm the initial hypothesis and emphasizes the aim and motivation of the author, who approached this topic from the perspective of her own experience in pianism. In order to contextualize the research within the framework of European pianism, the first chapter examines the most important determining factors in the history of pianism, from the invention of the piano to its golden age, and analyzes the contributions of individual pianists, with a focus on the widespread 19th century perception of the piano as a female instrument. Also investigated are the characteristics and influence of the development of national schools of pianism, with emphasis on their founders and most prominent representatives. The last part of the chapter contains an overview of gender/sex topics in the context of pianism, from stereotypes assigned to the piano in the 19th century to the theory of phallocentricity present in the pianist profession even today. The second chapter contains an review of the development of pianism in the Zagreb environment, from the first mentions of keyboard instruments to the end of the 19th century, including occurrences such as private piano lessons, guest performances of foreign pianist virtuosi, and finally the institutionalization of piano lessons in the piano classroom at the Croatian Music Institute music school, which eventually developed into the Zagreb Academy of Music in the early 20th century. A part of this chapter is devoted to the analysis of pianist concert activity in Zagreb and the share of female pianists performing in public concerts. The next two chapters analyze the activity of individual female pianists within the framework of the piano classroom, i.e. the Department of Piano, Organ and Harp of the Zagreb Academy of Music, with primary focus on their share among piano students, graduates and teachers, followed by an analysis of their individual contributions to the development of pianism as a whole. Also examined is the creation and development of the Zagreb school of pianism and the activity of its founder, Svetislav Stančić, whose piano pedagogy significantly influenced female pianists from this work. Data about the number of female pianists in concert activity and all levels of music education was obtained through quantitative analysis, followed by an analysis of individual achievements of female pianists based on several criteria: education as a source of artistic activity, influence of European piano schools on their formation as pianists, and the scope and nature of their activities in concerts and pedagogy. The conclusion provides guidelines for systematic future research of local pianist activity, outside the Zagreb environment and beyond the limited time frame of research presented in this work. The analysis of the contributions of female pianists in music education institutions and the realization of individual artistic and reproductive achievements in late 19th and in the first half of the 20th century has revealed their important influence on the development of Croatian pianism, despite the social circumstances and prejudices that worked against the intellectual and artistic activity of women at the time.