U doktorskoj se disertaciji analizira i kritički razmatra uloga umjetnosti u kontekstu pokušaja uspostave sustava filozofije Friedricha Wilhelma Josepha Schellinga. Općeprihvaćeno je stajalište u povijesti filozofije da se Schellingova ranija filozofija može sagledati kao dovršenje transcendentalnoga idealizma i pokušaj uspostave sustava cjelokupne filozofije, a kasnija kao pokušaj dovršenja idealizma uopće u pozitivnoj filozofiji. Dovršenje transcendentalnoga idealizma Schelling je pronašao u umjetnosti, kao trećemu osnovnomu dijelu filozofije u kojemu se objedinjuju filozofija prirode i filozofija povijesti. Umjetnost u Schellingovoj filozofiji nije shvaćena kao estetika ili teorija umjetnosti, nego kao znanost, odnosno kao osnovni dio filozofije real-idealizma. Premda Schelling za života nije objavio filozofiju umjetnosti, posthumno su ipak objavljena njegova predavanja o filozofiji umjetnosti, koja je održao u Jeni 1802./1803. godine te ih je u više navrata ponovio u Würzburgu 1804./1805. godine. Uz Schellingova predavanja, umjetnost ima značajnu ulogu u djelu Sustav transcendentalnoga idealizma (1800.) te u Schellingovu govoru u Akademiji likovnih umjetnosti u Münchenu pod naslovom O odnosu likovnih umjetnosti prema prirodi (1807.). Bitno različita forma i zadaća pojedinih djela u kojima je umjetnosti pridana značajna uloga, te Schellingovo očitovanje o vlastitoj filozofiji identiteta kao negativnoj filozofiji naspram kasnije pozitivne, rezultirali su uvriježenim shvaćanjem nekonzistentnosti uloge umjetnosti u Schellingovoj filozofiji. S obzirom da je od sredine dvadesetoga stoljeća pa sve do danas pronađen i objavljen niz rukopisa i zapisa Schellingovih predavanja, razumijevanje pojma umjetnosti u Schellingovoj filozofiji u novije se doba bitno izmijenilo. Cilj je disertacije hermeneutičkom i imanentno-kritičkom metodom protumačiti Schellingovu osnovnu misao, kako bi se iz cjeline njegova sustava odredila uloga umjetnosti. Na taj se način nastoji ukazati na konzistentnost i kontinuirani razvoj kako pojma umjetnosti tako i cjelokupnoga sustava Schellingove filozofije.
|Abstract (english)|| |
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schellingʼs lectures on the philosophy of art can be considered a unique attempt in the history of philosophy at providing art with a scientific basis. However, they are not notable for being the only such endeavor, as similar attempts were made even before Schelling, but because he made art an essential and indispensable part of the entire system of philosophy. Schellingʼs notion of art is not limited to establishing art as a science, but in his system, it is understood as the organon and document of philosophy and, therefore, as the completion of transcendental idealism. Schelling’s lectures on the philosophy of art were first held in Jena in 1802/1803 and were repeated several times in Würzburg, where he continued his academic work after leaving Jena. Unlike philosophy of nature and transcendental philosophy, Schelling’s philosophy of art was not published during his lifetime. These lectures, entitled Philosophy of Art, were posthumously published by Schellingʼs son, Karl Friedrich August Schelling, in the fifth volume of Schelling’s Complete Works, containing lectures both from Jena and Würzburg. Since Schelling did not intend to publish these lectures, he did not finalize them. From the middle of the twentieth century to the present day, nine more lecture transcripts have been found. The Jena transcript by Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser, published in the second part of the sixth volume of the Historical-Critical Edition, is of a particular note. Bearing in mind Schellingʼs ambiguous statement about his own earlier philosophy as a mere negative philosophy and many later interpretations by his critics of the role of art he presented in the last chapter of the System of Transcendental Idealism, it is the newly found transcripts that provide new insights into the interpretation of the role of art in Schellingʼs system. The sixth volume of the Historical-Critical Edition is dedicated to the Philosophy of Art and was published in two volumes in 2018 by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, which has been republishing his works together with newly found manuscripts and transcripts. Furthermore, the sixth volume provides not only new insights into common interpretations that his earlier philosophy has been surpassed in the later works and that the notion of art is presented inconsistently in various works but also sheds new light on the relationship between Jena and Würzburg lectures. Considering the subsequently gathered manuscripts and transcripts of Schellingʼs lectures, our doctoral dissertation examines the role of art in specific periods of Schellingʼs philosophy in order to support the hypothesis that art has a continuous and consistent role in the development of his system of philosophy and that seemingly contradictory views on art should be viewed in terms of the task and context of a particular work. In order to consistently substantiate the hypothesis, the first three chapters are divided according to these periods and consider works that have directly or indirectly contributed to the understanding of the concept of art. The first chapter examines the earliest period of Schellingʼs philosophy from 1794 to 1800, focusing on a collection of articles entitled A General Review of the Latest Philosophical Literature, in which philosophy of art is for the first time mentioned as the third basic part of philosophy, combining the philosophy of nature and transcendental philosophy. Furthermore, it focuses on the final sixth chapter of the System of Transcendental Idealism, in which art is understood as the completion of transcendental idealism, therefore, the general organon and capstone of the overall philosophy. The second chapter presents the period of the philosophy of identity from 1800 to 1806. It is particularly significant as the lectures on the philosophy of art were held on several occasions during that period. After elaborating on the philosophy of nature in the period from 1797 to 1799 and completing the system of transcendental philosophy with the notion of aesthetic intuition in art in 1800, Schelling focused on establishing a system of the overall philosophy. The chapter aims to demonstrate that Schelling, with the unity of philosophy of nature and transcendental philosophy, laid the foundation for presenting his overall system, which only confirms that in the philosophy of identity, art is no longer regarded as the main subject matter. Instead, he treats art concerning the whole system. In doing so, the second chapter considers the basic concepts of the Philosophy of Art, thus accentuating the general views of real-idealism in Schellingʼs interpretations of specific forms of formative and verbal arts. The fact that Schelling relied heavily on other authors in preparing his lectures gave many later interpretations reason to challenge his originality, therefore, the chapter emphasizes his original thought based on the interpretation of general views. After considering the role of art in Schellingʼs early philosophy, having concluded that the role of art has not fundamentally changed, the third chapter discusses the notion of art in the first Munich period from 1806 to 1815. Just as in the second chapter the role of art is viewed concerning philosophy, so in the third chapter it is considered concerning religion. The emphasis is placed on Schellingʼs speech at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich in 1807 entitled On the Relation of the Formative Arts to Nature. Furthermore, the notion of art is placed in the broader context of Schellingʼs attempt to establish historical philosophy. After covering the historical context of the development of Schellingʼs system of philosophy from 1795 to 1815 and pointing out the consistent role of art in the overall system, the fourth chapter elaborates on the romantic idea of the return of science to poetry, present in all periods of his work. By presenting the elementary moments of the fall from the absolute and the return to it, the chapter seeks to substantiate the view that Schellingʼs system of realidealism is fundamentally aesthetic. The final section of the fourth chapter summarizes the relationship between earlier negative and later positive philosophy to further consistently elaborate on Schellingʼs overall philosophy, and confirms that art has the same role in positive philosophy, although it is no longer the issue under consideration.