U ovom su radu obrađeni rezultati istraživanja tri avarodobna lokaliteta u zapadnom Srijemu; iskopavanja na lokalitetima Otok-Gradina/Mandekov vinograd, Privlaka-Gole njive i Stari Jankovci-Gatina vršena su u nekoliko kampanja tokom druge polovice 20. Stoljeća. Rezultati istraživanja dosada su bili samo sumarno naznačeni u kratkim izvještajima. Nakon lociranja, konsolidacije i digitalizacije sve danas dostupne i znane dokumentacije, pristupilo se obradi podataka i analizi rezultata istraživanja: 346 grobova je katalogizirano, utvrđene su prostorne odrednice lokaliteta i same mikroregije, izvršena je detaljna tipološkokronološka analiza svih nalaza, ustanovljena je detaljna kronologinja lokaliteta na temelju tipološko-kronološke analize materijala, računalne serijacije i horizontalne stratigrafije lokaliteta; provedena je i socijalna kategoirizacija mikrozajednica koje su se pokapale na svakom lokalitetu zasebno i socijalna kategorizacija zajednice na temelju statistike pogrebnih običaja, prosječne slike nalaza i analize stabilnih izotopa osteoloških uzoraka određenog dijela pokojnika na dva lokaliteta (Privlaka i Stari Jankovci) kako bi se definirale prehrambene navike mikrozajednica, a posebna je pozornost posvećena eventulanim tragovima kasnoantičkog ili bolje rečeno, utjecaja mediteranskog kutlurnog kruga na materijalnu kulturu zajednice koja se pokapala na ovim lokalitetima. Osnovni je cilj bio izvršiti analizu rezultata istraživanja u maniri današnjeg stanja istraživanja avarske arheologije, kako bi rezultati bili usporedivi s rezultatima istraživanja istovremenih lokaliteta diljem Karpatske kotline; također, po prvi puta je metoda računalne serijacije pri uspostavljanju tipološko-kronološke slike lokaliteta primijenjena na sva tri lokaliteta zajedno, kako bi se dobili što kvalitetniji rezultati te je po prvi puta računalna serijacija primijenjena na lokalitetima jugoistočne periferije Kaganata. S ciljem što kompletnije obrade lokaliteta, u radu su prikazani i rezultati istraživanja ostalih stratigrafskih jedinica otkrivenih na lokalitetima; stratigrafskih jedinica i nalaza koji upućuju na funkcioniranje lokaliteta i u kasnijem srednjem vijeku, ali i naseobinskog dijela lokaliteta Stari Jankovci koji je barem djelomično bio u funkciji u vrijeme funkcioniranja groblja na dotičnom lokalitetu.
|Abstract (english)|| |
This paper deals with the results of research on three Avar sites in western Srijem; excavations at the sites of Otok-Gradina / Mandekov vinograd, Privlaka-Gole njive and Stari Jankovci-Gatina were carried out in several campaigns during the second half of the 20th century. The results of the research so far have only been summarized in brief reports. After locating, consolidating and digitalizing all currently available and known documentation, data processing and analysis of research results were started: 346 graves were cataloged, spatial determinants of localities and microregions were determined, detailed typological-chronological analysis of all findings was performed, detailed chronology of the sites was established based on typological-chronological analysis of materials, computer serialization and horizontal stratigraphy of sites; the social categorization of micro-communities buried in each locality was carried out and the social categorization of the community based on funeral customs statistics, image of average funerary equipment and stable isotope analysis of osteological samples of a certain number of the deceased at two sites (Privlaka and Stari Jankovci) to define dietary habits of micro-communities, and special attention is paid to possible traces of the Late Antique or better said, the influence of the Mediterranean cultural circle on the material culture of the community buried in these sites. The main goal was to analyze the research results in the manner of the current state of research in Avar archeology, so that the results were comparable with the results of research of simultaneous sites throughout the Carpathian Basin; also, for the first time the method of computer serialization was applied to all three localities together to establish a typological-chronological picture of the site, in order to obtain the best possible results; it is also the first time computer seriation was used in southeastern periphery of the Khaganate. With the aim of more complete processing of localities, the paper also presents the results of research of other stratigraphic units discovered at the sites in question; stratigraphic units and finds that indicate the functioning of the site in the later Middle Ages, but also the settlement part of the site Stari Jankovci which was at least partially in operation during the functioning of the cemetery at the site. At Gole Njive the earliest burial, double grave 53 can be dated to the very beginning of the Late Avar period, in the first decades of the 8th century, although it seems that the earliest horizon can be connected with the very end of the Middle Avar period (grave 66 and grave 104); cemetery can be traced throughout the 8th century, and probably in the first decades of the 9th (grave 220, GA) according to graves with belt sets; a group of graves with belt-sets was noticed at this site, which differs from the rest of the cemetery in terms of spatial distribution and richness of finds (group of graves 202+) ) and in them we recognize the latest surely dataable finds (stick beads) that allude to the possible (short) functioning of the cemetery even after the political fall of the Avar state organization. At Stari Jankovci, the earliest certainly dated burial is the equestrian grave 88, whose equipment and accessories fully reflect the later phase of the Middle Avar period; the functioning of the cemetery can be traced back to the second half of the 8th century, but most of the excavated part of the cemetery can be dated to the early phase of the Late Avar period, the first half of the 8th century; it is to be assumed that the later part of the cemetery is still unexcavated or destroyed by the action of (illegal) clay dig before the archeological excavations themselves. A small part of a larger Avar cemetery has been excavated at Gradina in Otok, a total of 22 graves: the earliest excavated burial is the equestrian grave 4, which dates to the very beginning of the Late Avar period and the first decades of the 8th century , just as grave 53 from Privlaka, while grave 13 is probably the latest dated grave, based on a belt set dated to the very end of late Avar production. It seems that in the earliest burial horizon one can recognize the greater influence of the Mediterranean-Byzantine cultural ecumenism, especially the Black Sea area through the similarity of the burial findings of the deceased in grave 104 and the large belt end from grave 66; the choice of decorative motifs on the belt set of horsemen from grave 88 in Stari Jankovci speaks in favor of the influence of the Mediterranean cultural circle, which supports the theory of greater intensity of communication between the Kaganates and Byzantium or the Byzantine cultural circle, the Black Sea area and (the southeastern periphery) of the Kaganate during the last third of the 7th century; in the same period, a part of women's graves with several pairs of earrings appear on Gole njive, a phenomenon that in the same period is also registered on Austrian Avar age cemeteries; at Gole njive this phenomenon will reappear in the later phase of the late Avar period, in the 202+ group of graves. It should be emphasized that a very similar type of luxury silver lunular earrings with star-shaped and teardrop pendants appears on Gradina and Gole njive, as well as their cast bronze imitations, raising the question of existence of local, highly specialized workshop in the area and survival of cultural traditions of Late Antiquity (modes of production). The presence of two separate groups of graves with belt sets on Gole njive raises the question of determining the status symbolized by the presence of belt set in a grave, and the composition of the belt sets, group as well as the presence of unique iron damascened phalerae in the separate group, distinctively different from the central group of graves with belt sets raises the question of different activities connected with the right to wear a belt set – perhaps the difference is due to the connection of the bearer of the set from the group 202+ with trade activity, in accordance with the theory of the Balkan area as a possible communication link between Byzantium and Khaganate through Bulgaria. Social categorization paints a picture of tipical rural community of the Kaganate peripheral area, a relatively similar way of life of microcommunities with certain differences in funeral customs (food items) and food distribution that could signal identity differences between the inhabitants of Privlaka and Stari Jankovci: these two sites show some differences in jewelry, mostly earrings where it is noticeable that in Stari Jankovci there is a classic range of earring types (earrings with glass beads), expected in late Avar cemeteries, while women's and children's graves in Privlaka reveal a much wider range of types whose appearance can not be limited to one generation. In conclusion, as in other parts of the Carpathian Basin that are part of the former Roman provinces, there is a tendency for Avar age sites to be located near (Late) Antique communications (the pattern is explicitly clear when it comes to graves with large phalerae), crossroads or important strategic positions, which was noticed in the wider area of Eastern Slavonia, but also in these sites, given the proximity of the former Roman Cibalae and the location of these sites in the hinterland of the former Roman Danube Limes.