Rad se bavi analizom četiri srpska bukvara nastala od 1965. do 2011. godine. Građa je podijeljena na tematske jedinice: etnicitet, rodni i obiteljski odnosi, koje su analizirane pristupom društvenih aktera kroz dijakronijski presjek. Vizualni sadržaji su klasificirani na narativne ili konceptualne reprezentacije, koje su dalje raščlanjivane na aktere, vektore, ciljeve, pratnju i sredstva kod narativnih, tj. na cjelinu i dijelove kod konceptualnih. Analiza je obuhvatila ostvarivanja slikovnog čina i pogleda (direktan ili indirektan pogled), udaljenost (bliska, srednja i dugačka) i izbor horizontalnog i vertikalnog kuta. Modalnost se u analizi odnosi na pouzdanost poruke, koliko je ona istinita, lažna, predstavlja li fikciju i sl. Jezični sadržaji analizirani su kroz pristup društvenih aktera (nominacija, identifikacija, klasifikacija i sl.) i društvene aktivnosti koju oni čine (materijalna, semiotička itd.). Rezultati analize pokazali su da se domovina u bukvarima iz 1965. i 1974. gradi, brani, čuva i voli, dok raspadom SFRJ nestaju državni simboli i domovina se izjednačava sa prirodom. Lik Josipa Broza Tita, smjenjuju Vuk Stefanović Karadžić i Sveti Sava kojima se jača nacionalni identitet. Rodni i obiteljski odnosi u svim bukvarima prikazuju patrijarhalno društvo u kojem je žena vezana uz domenu domaćinstva, pripreme hrane i njege bolesnih, dok je muškarac lovac i pokretač radnje. Interakcije djevojčica i dječaka učestalije su od devedesetih na dalje, ali je dječak i dalje inicijator.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The thesis deals with the analysis of four serbian ABC books, published between 1965. and 2011. Those abc books were used in schools and prescribed by the state administration. Collected corpus is devided into thematic units: entnicity, gender and generational relashionships, and those are analysed from the aspects of critical discourse analysis, using the social actors approach and social semiotics in diachronic perspective. Analysis firstly deals with the visual elements and then with the verbal. Visual elements are analysed by dividing it on narrative or conceptual representations. Narrative representations are classified into action, speach or mental process, identified actors, their goals, vectors and accompaniment. Conceptual representations are usually analytical processes which relate participants in terms of a part–whole structure. Interaction between the viewer and depicted image can be realised by direct gaze at the viewer (demand). If there is an absence of gaze at the viewer it is an offer. Interaction is also achieved by using the specific distance: close, middle and long, as well as certain horizontal and vertical angle. Horizontal angle refers to showing depicted image as a part of the viewer's world, and vertical refers to power and who has it. Modality refers to the truth value or credibility of an image, high modality has sharpness, good quality colour palette, depth and everything that modern day photography offers. Modality becomes low when it loses it's sharpnes, clarity, depth etc. Verbal elements are analysed by social actor and social action approach, for an instance are those actors named by their full name, nickname and do they perform material or semiotic social action, is it trasactive or nontransactive etc. Transactive socal action can be interactive (involves human being) and instrumental (doesn't have to involve human). Taking into account the fact that collected corpus deals wiht the four abc books used in public schools from 1965 to 2011 during the change of social system, government, political reign, this thesis follows how social changes in domain of ethnicity, gender and family relations mirrors in abc books in diachronic perspective. In ABC books published and used during the socialism era (1965, 1974) homeland is visualy depicted by building and restoring country into a modern society that has to be defended, protected and loved. The most prominent figure is the president of the The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) who was also a commander-in-chief of The Yugoslav People's Army Josip Broz Tito. He takes the possition of the very begginig. When an actor, his goal are children, he is depicted from frontal horizontal angle and vertical on the eye level which sends a message „he is the one of you and belongs to your world“. When shown in the company of the pupils, he is dressed in a civil suit, but in the presence of pioneers he wears a uniform. In verbal content he is nominated by his full name and presidental funcition and is also present as Tito (nickname). He is classified as the oldest in the Army as it's maker. He is depicted as an warrior, protector and a man who is loved and respected by everyone. The main motto We are Tito's-Tito is ours demonstrates mutual belonging. In the 1974 ABC book he is dressed in the uniform and surrounded by pioneers. He is their commander-in-chief on two level – as a president of the state and as a head of the Army. Visual analysis of the ceremony of becoming a pioneer is showed as a kind of initiation, a way of stepping into the world of adults. Pioneer’s hats are represented in green colour, instead of blue, which serves as a connection with partisans who liberated the country in the Second World War. This sends the message that every pioneer is a descendant of partisan and also potential member of Yugoslav People’s Army. In the ABC books from socialist era Army functions as Yugoslav People's Army and as an army formed by children who plays with brooms, sticks etc. In verbal content Tito is not only a president, by the end of the ABC book from 1974 he becomes a child, is called little Joža, he is reckless and playfull as any other child. In the ABC book from 1996, which is published after the desintegration of SFRY there are no Tito, army, pioneers, but no new state symbols including a flag. Homeland is visualy depicted as nature itself, it is almost like a planet Earth. In the ABC book from 2011 homeland is fonud in the context of any other love, to natural beauty and people we are close with. Besides that homeland context has changed and almost vanished there is a prominent emphasising of serbian national identity by using the image of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (serbian language reformer and collector of folk literature) and Saint Sava (the first serbian archbishop). Vuk Karadžić takes over Tito's place in ABC books, his presence shows offer, he has a serious face expression asking for respect from a viewer. He is not continuously showed from frontal horizontal angle, there is an one example of partly leaning horizontal angle because he belongs to the past time. Nevertheless, he carries out fondness with the viewer by being framed in oval shape frame which looks like an old family photograph. His wardrobe is important because it has an elements of folk costume, his hat for an instance, which suits him as a collector of folk literature. He is mainly showed as an old man which stresses out his knowledge, authority and wisdom. In the ABC book from 1996 Saint Sava is not visually present, he is the main actor in the folk story which describes him as an wise teacher, but in the later book from 2011 he is presented as a fresco image form Mileševa Monestary which is important for forming a cult of him as a saint. Showing him as a saint in ABC book form 2011 can be explained by stronger influence of The Serbian Orthodox Church in society. Gender relations are analysed in the similar order as ethnicity, firstly visual and then verbal content. Analysis deals with the standalone representation of the girls, then standalone boys and thier interaction chronologicaly from 1965 to 2011 ABC book. Boys dominante in the ABC book from 1965 even if they are shown alone, or playing with each other. When boys and girls are together they are performing school activities or imitating adults where boys are in charge. Vectors used by girls are flowers, decorating branches, whereas boys use lots of tools, weapons and objects with practical purpose. Goals toward girls direct their action are toys, decoration and cleaning objects, while boys are directed toward animals, toys like ball, kit, rocket etc. Interaction with the viewer is accomplished with demand, frontal horizontal angle, vertical angle on the eye level which sends the message „This is how we play and do things just like you/You can play and do all those things as well.“ Despite new legal rights and emancipation of women in post war society gender rolls are very traditional. Girls are acting and looking like mothers considering their clothes and the fact they take care of others. On the other hand, boys dominante as hunters, fishermen, adventurers and at the and as action initiators. Analyzing verbal content we see that girls are depicted as good girls, excelent in school achievements while boys are involved in sports. Social action is particulary common for boys and they are involved in all sorts of material actions including transactive, interactive and instrumental action. Semiotic social action is not that present, only in werbs want and dream. When boys and girls are included in the same social action, they are present as pioneers or pupils in school. Boys and girls are not higly represented in the ABC book from 1975 because adults besides family dominate. Girl is present as an actor in the roll of a Red Riding Hood and as an interactor where to girls are goal for each other. Their wardrobe is the same as in 1965, they have long hair and wear skirts and dresses. They are in involved in material transactive social action about food preparation, making cake and asking for an advice. Semiotic social aciton is present in one example when she doesn't like cake recipe. When depicted visualy boys are present in action and speach process. His vectors are fishing stick, newspapers, and goal is the fish. There, we see he is still a hunter. Speaking of interaction, there are examples of offer and demand, and continuously usage of frontal horizontal angle and vertical is on the eye level. It is the same when boys and girls are presented together, and their vecotrs are hands. Boys and girls envolved in common activities perform material social action by drawing, having pen etc. ABC book from 1996 presents both genders more often in action process. When girls are actors they have a flower as a vector, and their goals are flower, butterfly, bird. On the other hand goals for boys are pieces of paper, ball, kit, other boys, bird etc. His means are scooter and a stick. When both genders are together we see them from long distance to have a better understanding of their positions in space. Horizontal and vertical angle is the same as in the previous ABC books. When they play together their goals are the same: bird, tree, letters, but they are not equally active – he climbs the tree but she just touches it. His means are some kind weapons and her's are flowers and musical instrument. Female wardrobe is the same as in the previous ABC books. When boys and girls are verbaly described common is the use of adjective small. When they are identified by function boys are friends, bakers, thiefs, princes and girls are princesses. Considering emotions she displays anger and both of them fall in love but only in a dream when in the roles of prince and princess. ABC book from 2011 is very similar considering vectors and goals for both genders as well as verbal representation. The most prominent novelty is the presence of boys and girls sitting together in school classroom. There are changes in wardrobe because girls wear trousers during winter. Verbal content is the same as in the previous ABC book. Family in ABC books consists of mother, father, children, usually boy and girl, and grandparents. In the ABC book from 1965 mother is involoved in action such as cooking, taking care of children and household. Her vectors are hands and ladle, goals are casserole, child, sewing machine, seller at the open market etc. Girl is also attached to cooking, taking care of others and helping, just like grandmother. Father is only once present where he cuts bread and is the only one family member who sends demand to the viewer, certenly as a head of family. Gradfather is visualy represented with gray mustache and he keeps them in all ABC books. In the ABC book from 1974 there are only two family portraits and one action process. Action process depicts mother and daughter in a full colour photography where they share a hug. There is a rare example of partly low vertical angle, because the viewer is put in the possition of admireing their love. Grandfateher and grandson as an actors have a the same goal, tree they plant. Most of the family members engage in interacition with the viewer giving direct gaze (demand). Mother is not so involved in cooking but she is still tied to taking care of children. Considering mutal relations there are no relations between father and daughter and grandfather and granddaughter. In the ABC book from 1996. Mother is still present in food prepairing domain, as daughter. Boy is still a hunter and adventurer. Brother and sister are interactors holding hands with each other. All actors are presented from long distance, but horizontal and vertical angle place them in the viewer's world. Interaction with direct gaze send boy and girl because they are connecting with their peers. Father and son play chess, father and daughter go to buy books, and relationship between grandfahter and granddaughter is nonexistent. ABC book from 2011. brings changes in female wardrobe and hairstyle. Mother wears trousers, and has a shorter hair just like grandmother does. Grandfather keeps his gray mustache which makes him look like Vuk Karadžić. Mother is still taking care of household, daughter is ready to help in, grandfather tells the stories to his grandson, father makes telephone calls and fixes the car. Mutual relations are present between all family members exept grandaughter and gradfahter. To sum up gender relations on repeating characteristics we see that female gender is tied to the earth by flowers, food, helping wounded etc. Male gender including boy and the father are hunters and grandfather is someone who possess wisdom and storytelling skills. Inseparable connection between woman and earth can be traced back to matriarchy residues in the society with defined patriarchal roles because woman was the one who first discovered plants. At the end we can say that social and political changes like regime change are quickly applied so state symbols and historical figures replace one another. On the other hand, gender relations in ABC books are less likely to follow society changes because woman is still inseparable from earth and man is a hunter.