U svojoj doktorskoj disertaciji istražila sam narativne i dramske modele androginije u tekstovima bečke moderne. Analizirala sam književna djela Huga von Hofmannsthala, Leopolda von Andriana, Arthura Schnitzlera, Richarda Beer-Hofmanna, Petera Altenberga, Hermanna Bahra i Roberta Musila. Pojam androginije koristila sam kao operativni pojam za sve tipove neodređenog ili relativiranog roda koji bitno odstupaju od onodobne normativne polarizacije spolova/rodova u građanskom društvu. Diskurzivne efekte tako shvaćenog motiva androginije možemo nazvati hibridnim rodom. Obrazlagala sam na koji se način pripovjedne odnosno dramske strukture, teme, motivi i likovi u tekstovima bečke moderne mogu klasificirati kao rodno-obilježeni obrasci. Analiza metodološki počiva na kombinaciji strukturalistički orijentirane naratologije s jedne i rodnih studija (gender studies) s druge strane. Posebno težište stavila sam na analogije ili homologije između (de)konstrukcije roda i različitih narativnih odnosno dramskih postupaka. U uvodu disertacije ukratko sam prikazala povijest androginije (A. Aurnhammer 1986), rodni poredak u građanskom društvu bečkog fin-de-siècle-a i njegovu krizu, te na kraju obrazložila pojave „androginizacije“ zapadnih industrijskih društava od 1960-ih godina naovamo. Prvi cilj istraživanja bio je sistematizirati motive i tipove androginije u poznatim i manje poznatim tekstovima bečke moderne. Drugi je cilj istraživanja bio dovesti u vezu hibridni rod u književnosti bečke moderne s „konstruktivističkim“ shvaćanjem roda koje je postalo samorazumljivo u kontekstu postfeminističke teorije i rodnih studija. Treći je cilj bio istražiti hibridni rod u kontekstu teze o anticipativnom postmodernom potencijalu bečke moderne, s obzirom na to da se dekadentne, esteticističke, (auto)ironijske i društveno-kritičke paradigme u oblikovanju hibridnog roda u suvremenoj recepciji mogu reaktualizirati. Rezultati se vide u zaključku disertacije: bečka moderna predstavlja prijelazno razdoblje između tradicionalnog, viktorijanskog doba i liberalnog društva (permissive society), budući da književnici toga razdoblja na manje ili više radikalan način propituju, (re)produciraju i subvertiraju onodobne rodne obrasce (fin-de-siècle).
|Abstract (english)|| |
My doctoral dissertation aims to explore the narrative and dramatic patterns of androgyny in the texts of Vienna Modernism (in German: Wiener Moderne). The analysis is focused upon the literary works of Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Leopold von Andrian, Arthur Schnitzler, Richard Beer-Hofmann, Peter Altenberg, Hermann Bahr and Robert Musil. I have used the notion of androgyny as an umbrella term for all types of uncertain or relativised gender which essentially depart from the turn-of-the-century (19th -20th century) normative polarisation of sexes/genders within the bourgeois society. Discursive effects of the thus understood motif of androgyny can be named hybrid gender. The first aim of my research has been to systematise the motifs and types of androgyny in well-known as well as less known texts of Vienna Modernism. My second aim has been to connect hybrid gender in the literature of Vienna Modernism with the „social-constructivist“ understanding of gender which has become self-evident within the context of postfeminist theory and gender studies. The third aim has been to explore hybrid gender in the context of the thesis of anticipatory postmodern potential of Vienna Modernism, taking into account the fact that the decadent, aestheticist, (self)ironic and socially-critical paradigms in shaping the hybrid gender can be re-actualised in contemporary literary reception. The notion of androgyny is useful in order to further explain the motif of hybrid gender within the period of Vienna Modernism as a period of the crisis of gender (the specific crisis of gender relations and gender identities). However, the motif of androgyny within the modernisation processes around the turn of the century (19th -20th century) is not only portrayed as a notion of the crisis of identity (whether male or female crisis of identity), but it also represents the following intentions of writing (literary works of Viennese authors): 1. cultural pessimism and scepticism, which already designate the hybridisation of gender identities, 2. world-weariness of aesthetical natures that is highly portrayed within the literary works of Viennese authors: the portrayal of literary characters of effeminate (hypersensitive) aesthetes, flâneurs, dandies, and neurasthenic natures (whether male or female natures), which all carry the characteristic of primary narcissism, taking into account the fact that the notion of primary narcissism can also have a positive meaning of a relation of literary characters with the beings surrounding them, or a relation to one's interior world (one's own subconscious level), 3. social critique. The principal question being posed within the literature of Viennese authors is the following: do the Viennese writers subvert, question, transcend or even give an utopian perspective with regard to gender roles and gender identities? It has to be emphasised that Viennese writers somehow retain the traditional, even stereotypical portrayal of female characters (stereotypically representing women as passive, irrational and reproductive beings), while, on the other hand, they describe both male and female characters as androgynous (to a certain extent). However, this kind of androgyny (better to say, hybrid gender) stems from the more or less extreme gender ambivalence, which is created through the male demonising (or androgynising) of female beings, and, in consequence, the internalisation of female characteristics within the male psyche (as a male rebellion against the patriarchal order). In the analysis of the texts of Viennese authors, I have explained the way in which narrative and dramatic structures, themes, motifs and characters can be classified as gendered patterns (whether these categories belong to gender specific or gender neutral patterns). The analysis methodologically rests upon the combination of structuralist-oriented narratology on the one hand and gender studies on the other hand, taking into account the feminist and post-feminist theories, in order to further explain gendered patterns within the texts of Viennese authors. I have put a special emphasis upon the analogies or homologies between the (de)construction of gender and various narrative and dramatic procedures. Social, cultural and ethical questions of this specific period of Vienna Modernism, when considered within the framework of gender studies, do not only mirror the content and the themes in the literary works of Viennese authors, but are also present within the narrative and dramatic structures, i.e. in the manner of the representation: Who speaks and who represents whom? Who is the subject and who the object of narrative or dramatic presentation, i.e. whose point of view dominates the narrative or dramatic literary work? One must take into account the fact that the specific period of Vienna Modernism, at the turn of the century (19th20th century), was imbued with various discourses which have made an impact upon the writers of Vienna Modernism, and the (social and cultural) discourses are the following: 1. the crisis of language and cognition, a notion that stems from Ludwig Wittgenstein, who was a philosopher of language, 2. a notion of unsaved ego, the notion that stems from Ernst Mach, who was a philosopher of science and physicist, and who contributed to the development of impressionistic style of writing of many Viennese authors, 3. the notion of the crisis of bourgeois way of perceiving, taking into account Sigmund Freud's foundation of psychoanalysis. In the conclusion of my dissertation, I must emphasise a change of gender dynamics at the turn of the century, i.e. the masculinisation of women and the feminisation of men. On the one hand, women are striving towards an emancipation, while men, on the other hand, are more and more losing their firmness when confronted with growing modernisation processes, since they are under the pressure of growing industrialisation. It has to be said that female emancipation within the patriarchal society becomes connected to an adaptation of women to a kind of masculinist culture. The results can be observed in the conclusion of my dissertation: Vienna Modernism represents the intermediate period between traditional, Victorian period on the one hand, and liberal, permissive society on the other hand, since the authors of that period (in a more or less radical way) question, (re)produce and subvert gender patterns of that period (turn-of-thecentury).