Ideja korištenja osobnih i prenosivih mobilnih uređaja u svrhu stvaranja sustava za potporu procesu učenja postoji više od četrdeset godina, no tek je nedavni razvoj računalnog sklopovlja otvorio područje razvoja sustava mobilnog učenja. U proteklih nekoliko godina mobilni su uređaji dostigli vrlo visok stupanj razvoja i integracije računalnih i komunikacijskih tehnologija, ipak nedostaci u interakciji koji su im svojstveni uzrokuju razmjerno lošu prihvaćenost sustava mobilnog učenja. Ovdje se postavlja pitanje oblikovanja modela sustava za m-učenje koji pojačava prednosti mobilnih uređaja do razine na kojoj njihovi inherentni nedostaci postaju marginalni s ciljem poboljšavanja prihvaćanja takvih sustava te stvaranja pozitivnog stava i motivacije za njihovo korištenje. Područje u kojem sustavi m-učenja mogu stvoriti pozitivne učinke je podrška za stvaranje obogaćene verzije tekstnih nastavnih materijala što je koncept oko kojeg je stvoren model personaliziranja nastavnih sadržaj primjeren učenju pomoću mobilnih uređaja. Analiza elemenata interakcije personaliziranja tekstnog materijala za zaslon osjetljiv na dodir pokazuje da je osnovna operacija sustava koja je ključna za fokusiranje na performanse upravo funkcija odabira dijelova teksta. Ostvareni model sustava m-učenja vrednovan je utvrđivanjem njegove primjenjivosti kvantitativnim i kvalitativnim metodama upotrebljivosti, pri čemu je posebna pažnja posvećena metodi odabira teksta, te istraživanjem učinka modela na prihvaćanje, stav i motivaciju prema korištenju sustava m-učenja. Prikupljeni empirijski podaci pokazali su povećano zadovoljstvo korisnika ostvarenom novom metodom odabira teksta te je potvrdili kao onu koja korisniku pruža najbolje performanse. Rezultati vlastitih istraživanja su pokazali kako je ovdje predloženi model sustava m-učenja polučio pozitivne učinke u smislu stava, prihvaćanja i motivacije za korištenje sustava m-učenja.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The idea of using personal and portable devices as the platform for technology enhanced learning is more than forty years old, nevertheless contemporary advancement of the computer hardware and mobile devices during past decade provided significant rise to the field of mobile learning systems. Mobile devices have reached high level of development and integration of computing and communication technologies, nevertheless their prominent limitations regarding the human computer interaction lead to less than adequate acceptance level of mobile learning systems. The thesis is result of research in the interdisciplinary fields of computer enhanced learning and human computer interaction in domain of mobile applications. It tackles the question of the mobile learning system model which would amplify benefits of mobile devices to overcome their innate shortages with the overall goal of improving acceptance level of such systems provided by the creation of positive attitude and motivation towards their usage. Mobile learning system can create positive effect through provision of functions for enriching textual learning materials, hence this concept is foundation for creation of the model for personalization of subject matter suitable for learning on mobile devices. Enhancements in the design process of the mobile learning system for personalization of subject matter are addressed with special emphasis on the methods for subject matter annotation and highlighting, adding short personal comments and creation of concept maps. Prototype of the new mobile learning system with support for personalization of subject matter was developed and evaluated. Evaluation of the established model for personalization of subject matter suitable for learning on mobile devices was designed as a two level experiment. Experiments on the first level included qualitative and quantitative usability methods, with special attention given to the text selection function and evaluation of the level of interaction with the contemporary mobile devices, which are clients of the mobile learning system. Prominent result of first level experiments emphasize importance of operation for selection of user interface elements. This result lead to the proposal of new method for user interface element selection based on variable relative distance of the cursor. Experiments done at the second level included examination of influence of the developed model on acceptance, attitude and motivation towards the use of m-learning system. First introductory section of the thesis addresses basic mobile learning concepts established on the foundations of the concept system named Dynabook which was developed during early 1970s by researcher Alan Kay. Second section of the thesis named Mobile learning and systems for mobile learning addresses general concepts of mobile learning. Most prominent m-learning systems from the last forty years of its development have been analyzed with special emphasis on the requirements for mobile devices which are used as clients for such systems. Section three named Personalization of mobile learning by annotation of subject matter defines general procedures for subject matter personalization and presents main questions of their personalization in the specific field of mobile learning systems. Model for personalization is introduced by classification of subject matter personalization procedures which include: annotation and marking, adding notes and written comments and creating concept maps. First two methods, namely annotation and marking and adding written comments and notes, provide learner with support for information assimilation and the third one, concept map creation, is out of most importance for synthesis of acquired information during learning. Section four named Research of the attitude towards the mobile learning paradigm addresses general attitude toward mobile learning systems and personalization of subject matter in the effort of establishing starting point for evaluation of the model proposed by this thesis. Respective experiments are described followed by analysis of the empirical data gathered. Section five named Model for personalization of subject matter suitable for touchscreen devices addresses inherent limitations of the interaction with touchscreen which is primary input-output unit of mobile devices. Inherent limitations are directly related to the size, occlusion and ability to select user interface elements using touchscreen input device. Special attention has been given to the design of the suitable interaction method for selection of user interface elements comprising of textual study materials. Novel selection method utilizing cursor with variable distance from target has been proposed. The method has been used as a foundation for developing respective mobile learning system named PULS-R. The system was used during experimental evaluation of abilities provided by the personalization methods. Section six, named Evaluation of developed mobile learning system model, describes experimental evaluation of PULS-R, research design and procedures used to evaluate the system. Detailed description of research procedures which include quantitative and qualitative evaluation of text selection methods together with description of statistical methods applied for result analysis is given in the sixth chapter. The methodology used to evaluate the system as a whole was the Theory of Planned Behavior specially adapted for the validation of the m-learning systems. Statistical analysis of the data gathered enabled drawing main conclusions about acceptance level, attitude and motivation towards the implemented system. The final seventh section includes the summary of the research conducted together with the synthesis of all conclusions accompanied with the commentaries of the three main scientific contributions of the thesis. Definition of the model for personalization of subject matter in the form of written text for m-learning systems using mobile devices with touchscreens is the first main contribution of the thesis. Foundation of the created model is the novel method of interaction used for selection of user interface elements. Furthermore, second main contribution of the thesis is creation of the prototype m-learning system, namely PULS-R, which implements the model of personalization. Prototype was used to gather empirical data during quantitative and qualitative validation. Furthermore, it was used to validate the model of the m-learning system using methodology of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Third main contribution of the thesis is gathering empirical data about the m-learning system and their statistical analysis accompanied with corresponding conclusions about user attitudes, level of acceptance and motivation towards the usage of the m-learning system.