Razvojni programi (RP) u vinogradarstvu i vinarstvu (RP-VIV) donose se ukoliko postoji prijetnja za postojeće stanje ili u okolnostima ograničenih resursa. U radu je na primjerima RP-VIV-a Hrvatske analiziran proces njihova donošenja, mapirani su dionici tog procesa te su istraženi percepcija i stavovi dionika. Postoje dva osnovna polazišta za izradu RP-a: 1. „analitičko“ polazište odnosno pristup „odozgo prema dolje“ (engl. top-down); 2. „sintetičko“ polazište–odnosno pristup „odozdo prema gore“ (engl. bottom-up). Prvo polazište koji ujedno ne uvažava participativan pristup (PP) za neke grupe dionika percipirano je nepravednim zbog isključenosti ili uzrokuje otpor pri provođenju. Suprotno tomu, drugo polazište uz PP percipirano je pozitivno i opravdano u smislu: adekvatnosti, specifičnosti, mjerljivosti te dostižnosti ciljeva. Efikasan PP dionika pri donošenju RP-a moguć je novim strukturiranim modelom komunikacije dionika (SMKD).
|Abstract (english)|| |
Development programs in viticulture and oenology (DPVO) are provided if there is a threat to the existing situation or to the circumstances of limited resources. Croatia is characterized by a long-term unfavorable structure in terms of: population age, education level, productivity, unemployment and public administration.
The objectives of the research were to study the efficacy of the DPVO by comparing the set goals and indices change in the sector in the period 2004 – 2014. Mapping of the stakeholders in the DPVO process, identification of their attitudes and opinions for the former DPVO development processes, is to be used for the structured stakeholder communication model in process of DPVO creation.
The goals of DPVO were analyzed in the official documents and changes in the sector's production and economic characteristics have been checked in publicly available data sources. Goals from three DPVO in the studied period were identified. For the most of the goals, it was found that achievements are partially measurable or cannot be measured at all.
There were two surveys in this study. First, a survey questionnaire with closed and open questions, answered by 102 respondents. The Second was "Q methodology" research on 46 respondents.
Data analysis has shown that significant areas of vineyards have been planted beside the official development programs. The dynamics of planting vineyards in the period 2004 - 2014 suffice only to preserve vineyards. A significant number of vineyards in Croatia is in the age group above 20 years. The annual retirement rate for vineyards at 30 years of age is estimated at 1.83% (512.4 hectares).
The production of grapes and wines in the whole studied period varies significantly with the occurrence of climatic extremes.
Imports and exports of wines vary. Exports are 4.4 times lower than wine imports. The average export price of wine is 3.99 USD and the average import price is 1.54 USD per liter of wine. Quantitative wine imports are growing in quantitatively bad vintages and falling in quantitatively good vintages.
The research involved mapping of stakeholders of the DPVO process and study of their attitudes. Responses show that 51% of respondents agree that they should be involved in the process of setting targets for the DPVO. More than 57% are ready to take part in the development of future DPVO goals. Only 1% of respondents believe that the stakeholders were fully involved in the process of setting the RP-VIV goals, and 2% that the users were involved in the same process. The overwhelming attitude of the respondents was that the DPVO goals were set top-down and not a bottom-up.
As a positive feature of the development programs, the users highlighted two: the usefulness (23.8%) and funds offered (14.9%). The total absence of positive characteristics was highlighted by 19.8% of respondents. Of the negative characteristics, they highlighted: too much of application documentation (34.7%), complicated application (29.7%), too high criteria for fulfilling the conditions of application (29.7%), delay in approval of application and payment of funds (24.8%), poor communication with competent institutions (21.8%), etc.
Factor analysis of the results of the Q research methodology distinguished two factors.The first factor is called “Patriotic Normative Excellence“ because it emphasizes the image of Croatia, preservation of the vineyards, autochthonousness, exports, high application criteria for grants, fast application to grants, efficiency, measurability, originality. The second factor is called “Practical Entrepreneurship and Cooperation“ because it points to cooperation, measurability, interdisciplinary communication, the image of wine domestically, tourism in Croatia, wine culture in Croatia, autochthonousness.
The structured public model of communication with stakeholders (SPMCS) is already present in Croatia, via the Internet "e-counseling" platform. For 42.2% of respondents, this platform is unknown. Unlike the existing SPMCS, an exploration model has been defined, characterized by simplicity, cost-effectiveness, efficient application, early involvement of different stakeholder groups and ex-ante removal of identified obstacles.
Proposal of a SPMCS containing the correct application of the Q-methodology in the primary phase of the creation process is a key contribution to the redefinition of SPMCS priorities. Set goals that reflect the rank of such priorities in all stages of adoption and implementation of SPMCS will ensure a high level of stakeholder participation and the success.
Existing public and commercial databases offer additional information what should be primarily used for the SPMCS, not for the conclusions exclusively.
This research aims to contribute to the organization and coordination of stakeholders in the creation of strategic and operational programs in viticulture and winemaking, taking into account individual and group viewpoints. Q-methodology application on PDVO provides insight into benefits when planning participatory processes in agriculture and rural development generally.