doctoral thesis
The prerequisites for increasing the competitiveness of Croatian agriculture

Vladimir Levak (2016)
Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Agronomski fakultet
Metadata
TitlePreduvjeti za povećanje konkurentnosti poljoprivrede Republike Hrvatske
AuthorVladimir Levak
Mentor(s)Ivo Grgić
Abstract
U svijetu je naglašen proces ekonomskih integracija i globalizacije, što nacionalne ekonomije potiče na jačanje izvozne konkurentnosti općenito, sektorski, odnosno kod pojedinačnih proizvoda. To je posebice značajno za relativno male ekonomije, kao što je Hrvatska, kod kojih je snažan utjecaj izvoza na gospodarski rast i razvoj. Poljoprivreda je, zbog svoje multifunkcionalnosti, jedan od „najzaštićenijih“ sektora i to posebice u Europi. Sustavi potpora i zaštite često su dovodili do njene cjenovne nekonkurentnosti na svjetskom tržištu pri čemu se u sličnom položaju nalazi i poljoprivredni sektor RH. Cilj ovoga istraživanja je izračun međunarodne cjenovne konkurentnosti hrvatske poljoprivrede kroz istraživanje konkurentnosti vrijednosno najzastupljenijih poljoprivrednih proizvoda. Istraživanjem su obuhvaćeni poljoprivredni proizvodi čiji je pojedinačni udjel u ukupnoj vrijednosti poljoprivredne proizvodnje Republike Hrvatske u razdoblju 2005-2012. godine preko 5%, a to su pšenica, kukuruz, meso goveda, meso svinja, meso peradi i kravlje mlijeko. Navedeni proizvodi predstavljaju 58,07% ukupne vrijednosti poljoprivredne proizvodnje Republike. Za istraživanje konkurentnosti korišteni su indeks troškova domaćih resursa (DRC – Domestic Resoruce Cost) i Otkrivena komparativna prednost (RCA - Revealed Comparative Advantage). Hrvatska nije značajniji, po udjelu, poljoprivredni proizvođač u svjetskom, europskom te ni EU okruženju. U ukupnoj europskoj proizvodnji (prosjek količine 2005-2012..) Hrvatska sudjeluje sa pšenicom 0,38%, kukuruzom 2,20%, kravljim mlijekom 0,38%, goveđem mesu 0,76%, svinjskom mesu 0,45% te mesu peradi 0,25%. Nešto viši udjel je u proizvodnji Europske unije. Za usporedbu konkurentnosti uzete su države s kojima je Hrvatska imala prosječno najveću vanjskotrgovinsku razmjenu pojedinim proizvodima u razdoblju 2005.-2012. godine. To je Italija u slučaju pšenice i kukuruza, Njemačka kod mesa svinja i mlijeka, Nizozemska kod mesa goveda te Brazil kod mesa peradi. Vrijednosti DRC koeficijenta pokazuju da je Hrvatska konkurenta kod pšenice, kukuruza i mesa peradi, granično kod mesa svinja, a izrazito nekonkurentna kod mlijeka i mesa goveda. Povećanje konkurentnosti je simulirano povećanjem postojeće proizvodnje po jedinici kapaciteta za 20%, povećanjem proizvodnje po jedinici kapaciteta na razinu konkurentnih zemalja te kod deprecijacije kune za 10%. Najveće povećanje konkurentnosti je moguće dosizanjem proizvodnje po jedinici kapaciteta konkurentskih država. Kod svih analiziranih proizvoda, izuzev goveđeg mesa, Hrvatska postaje konkurentnom. Veliki utjecaj na Hrvatsku nekonkurentnost imaju i niži varijabilni troškovi proizvodnje u konkurentnim državama koji omogućavaju za njih niže izvozne cijene u odnosu na cijene istih Hrvatskih proizvoda. Na (ne) konkurentnost također utječe i devizni tečaj koji pogoduje uvoznicima poljoprivrednoprehrambenih proizvoda.
Keywordscompetitiveness wheat maize meat milk Croatia scenarios
Parallel title (English)The prerequisites for increasing the competitiveness of Croatian agriculture
Committee MembersRamona Franić (committee chairperson)
Vesna Očić (committee member)
Krunoslav Zmaić (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zagrebu
Agronomski fakultet
PlaceZagreb
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Agronomy
Economics
UDK631/632
APPLIED SCIENCES. MEDICINE. TECHNOLOGY
Agriculture. Plant diseases. Plant protection
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelpostgraduate
Study programmeAgricultural Sciences
Academic title abbreviationdr. sc.
Genredoctoral thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-07-12
Parallel abstract (English)
In the world here is a strong emphasis on the process of economic integration and globalization, which encourages the national economies to strengthen export competitiveness in general, in a sector or in individual products. This is particularly important for relatively small economies, such as Croatia, where there is a strong influence of exports on economic growth and development. Agriculture is due to its multifunctionality one of the "most protected" sectors, particularly in Europe. Systems of support and protection have often brought to its price uncompetitiveness in the world market with a similar position of the agricultural sector of Croatia. The study started from the hypothesis that Croatian agriculture, except in the case of some products, is not internationally competitive, but also that there is a potential to increase its competitiveness by better use of production factors. The aim was to calculate the international price competitiveness of Croatian agriculture through research competitiveness of the most valuable frequent agricultural products (period average 2005-2012.). The survey covers agricultural products whose individual contribution to the total value of agricultural production is over 5%, which are wheat (6.47 %), corn (12.55%), beef (7.83%), pork (12.09%), poultry (6.82%) and cow's milk (12.32%). These products represent 58.07% of the total value of agricultural production of Croatia in that period. For the research competitiveness are used index Domestic Resoruce Cost (DRC) and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA). In addition to the above methods, export performance indicators are also used, such as the coverage of imports with exports, foreign trade balance and the relative contribution of foreign trade of agricultural and food products gross domestic product. Sources of information are statistical reports and publications of the Croatian Central Bureau of Statistics, reports by the Market Information System in Agriculture, Croatian Chamber of Agriculture, and reports by the Croatian Agricultural Agency, reports by FADN, WTO, Eurostat and FAO. For some years, and occurrences the data are assessed. Croatia with the analyzed products is not a significant factor in Europe and the European Union. In wheat Croatia participates with 0.29% in the areas of Europe and 0.64% in the European Union. Similar shares were in manufacturing (0.38% of Europe and 0.60% of the EU). Yields are higher than those in Europe (index 133), but lower than the yield in the EU (index 92). Some greater importance Croatia has in maize (2.03% of the area of Europe and 3.38% of the area of the EU). Croatia produced 2.20% of the total European production and 3.15% of EU maize production. As with wheat, the average yields are higher than the European (index 110), but lower than the EU yields (index 94). Croatian share is small in the number of dairy cows Europe (0.52%) and the EU (0.86%) and even lower in milk production (in Europe 0.38% and 0.61% in the EU) as a result of significantly lower production per cow (production index in relation to Europe 73, in relation to the EU 62). There is a lower share of the total Croatian the number of cattle and was 0.36% in Europe and 0.51% in the EU. There is a higher share is in the meat produced in Europe and accounts for 0.76% and 1.03% of the EU due to higher production of meat cattle. Although there are good conditions for pig production, especially due to the significant production of maize, the Croatian share in the number of pigs in Europe is 0.6% and 0.80% in the EU. There is a lower share of the meat produced in Europe and accounts for 0.45% in the EU 0.53% as a result of lower production of meat per pig (index compared to Europe was 60 and EU 57). In the total number of poultry in Europe, Croatia participates with 0.48% and 0.72% in the EU. However, its share in produced meat is lower and in Europe it is 0.25% and 0.32% of the EU as a result of lower production of meat per stem (index compared to Europe's 51 or EU 45). In that period Croatia has a negative foreign trade balance as a result of quantitative insufficient production and lack of competitiveness of the international price. Imports of agricultural and food products increased from 1.615 to 2.532 billion, while exports from 0.92 to 1.593 billion USD, which affected the increase in the negative annual balance of -695 to 939 million. However, during the analyzed period the coverage of imports by exports in agricultural and food products is higher than the average of total foreign trade (average for the period is at the agro-food products 60.3%, a total of 51.5%). In the analyzed products Croatia has a surplus (in value) of wheat, with the exception of 2005 and 2008, and in maize, and the deficit with milk, beef, pork and poultry meat. To calculate the importance of certain Croatian products in the world, we used the RCA coefficient and if it is over 1 it means that the state has expressed a comparative advantage in that product, and vice versa. The resulting RCA index shows the great importance of beef (2.028) and corn (2.163) for Croatia, something less wheat (1.741) and milk (1.14), whereas poultry meat (0.616) and pork are ‘’irrelevant’’. To calculate the international competitiveness of selected products, the DRC coefficient was used, in which for Croatia competitive are those countries from which it relatively most imported or exported - depending on the foreign trade balance. These are Italy for wheat and corn, Netherlands for beef, Germany for pork and milk, and Brazil for poultry meat. Wheat and corn are internationally competitive products but even greater competitiveness would be achieved by increasing yields to the level of Italy. In milk production Croatia is not competitive. The scenarios that predict an increase in milk production by 20% with the same number of cows, increasing the number of cows by 20% with the same milk production and at the same time increasing the number of cows and milk production by 20% would lead to the fact that milk production is internationally competitive. Only domestic milk production of cows as the ones in Germany would bring international competitiveness. Production of beef is not internationally competitive and Croatia will not achieve it in the near future. The production of pork competitive most of the period (2005, 2006, 2011 and 2012), and the period 2007/10. uncompetitive. Production of poultry meat is internationally competitive during the entire period. A lower level of competitiveness is mostly due to the influence of considerably more expensive inputs or major domestic variable costs compared to variable costs that competitive agricultural countries have. In order to increase the international competitiveness of Croatian agriculture it is necessary to increase the production per unit of capacity requiring major changes in manufacturing technology.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)konkurentnost DRC RCA pšenica kukuruz meso mlijeko Hrvatska scenarijska rješenja
Versionaccepted version
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Noteaccepted version
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:204:179171
CommitterVanja Masnov